General Macario Sakay and his men operated in Morong, Laguna, Cavite, and Tayabas, made Mt. Cristobal his headquarters but later moved to the mountains of Morong. His Republika ng Katagalugan was supported by the masses of Morong, Laguna, Batangas, and Cavite. The US armed Philippine Constabulary constantly complained to the municipal authorities for supporting and cooperating with Sakay who taxed hacienderos, merchants, farmers and laborers ten percent of their income only on those who could pay, but to those who refused to do so will to be arrested and forced to hard labor. Spies and informers were liquidated, tortured or had their ears and lips cut off as a warning to others.
In late 1904 General Sakay took military offensive, disguised in Philippine Constabulary uniforms they were successful in capturing a US military garrison in Parañaque, seized large amount of revolvers, carbines and ammunition. General Sakay's men often employed these uniforms to confuse the enemy. The US Army and their armed Philippine Constabulary launched the operation they did in Batangas that forced General Miguel Malvar and his men to surrender: “divide and rule,” “search and destroy,” “poisoned the soil,” “drain the swamp,” “liquidate anything that can be eaten” and “hamlet program” on the areas where General Sakay received strong assistance. These cruel counter-insurgency operations proved disastrous to General Sakay’s men and Filipino masses. The forced movement, relocation of large number people to expose the rebels, shortage of food and water caused the outbreak of diseases like cholera and dysentery. Food was scarce in the area and in camps, resulting in numerous deaths. Dominador Gomez mentioned the bad condition in General Sakay’s camp to the Americans upon his meeting with General Villafuerte, the malnourished general in his uniform tightened by a belt to hold his pants up, tried very hard to stand without the aid of a cane despite his malarial fever.
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