Thursday, August 31, 2017

Ang radikal na ideyang "Primer Filipino" (First Filipino)













"Primer Filipino" (First Filipino) - ay makatulad o makawangis ang Kastila, sa wikang Ingles ito'y "assimilation." Tulad ng karamihang mga bansa ngayon sa Amerika na dati'y kolonya rin ng Espana, ang mga naghimagsik laban sa kolonyalismo upang maging isang malayang bansa ay ang mga Kastilang nagtungo at nanirahan doon, mga "creoles" na naging anak nila na doon isinilang at mga mestizo na pinanganak mula sa dugong Kastila at katutubo.
Sa lahat ng naging kolonya ng Espana, Pilipinas lang ang bukod tanging masang lipunan "Indio/Tagalog" ang nagtaas ng kanilang kamao na sinimulan ng Supremo Andres Bonifacio at Gat Emilio Jacinto, himagsikang para sa kabuoang kalayaan laban sa kolonyalismo. Hindi tulad ng ating "viceroy" na Mexico na mga Kastila, creoles at mestizos ang siyang naghimagsik at humiwalay sa "Madre Espana." Ang hagdanan ng lipunan noong panahon ng mga Kastila sa Pilipinas ay ang mga sumusunod:
1) ...penisulares - Kastilang naninirahan sa kolonyang Pilipinas na ipinanganak sa Espana
2) ...insulares/creoles - mga anak ng purong Kastila na ipinanganak sa Pilipinas
3) ...mestizos - anak ng Kastila at Indio
4) ...indio/tagalog - dugong Tagalog o Katutubo
5) ...sangley - Insik

Dahil sa diskriminasyong tinatangap ng mga insulares/creoles at mestizos mula sa mga penisulares, nagkaisa ang mga creoles na magbuo ng samahang propaganda na sinimulan ng radikal ng paring creole Pedro Pelaez, na sumulat noong 1880 kay Reyna Isabel ng Espana sa pagtataguyod ng Sekular na Simbahan ng Pilipinas, sanhi rin ng nararanasang diskriminasyon ng mga paring creoles mula sa mga peninsulares. Sa lahat ng mga creoles/insulares na itinaguyod at pinagmalaki ang hagdan ng lipunan na kaniyang kinatatayuan ay si Don Luis Rodriguez Verela (El Conde Filipino), ang kauna-unahang creoles/insulares na tinawag at pinagmalaki ang kaniyang sarili na "Primer Filipino" (First Filipino). Ang radikal na ideya ni Padre Pedro Pelaez at idelohiya ng Rebolusyon ng mga Pranses ay pinagsama ni Luis Rodriguez Verela sa kaniyang mga sinulat na mga aklat, tulad ng: "El Parnaso Filipino" (Filipino Parnas), "Elogio a las provincias de la Espana Europea" (Eulogy to the provinces of Spain), "Himno Patriotico que en la Solemne publicacion de la Constitucion Espanola en la Capital del Reyno de Filipinas" (Anthem patriotic to the solemn publication of the Spanish Constitution in the Capital of the Kingdom of the Philippines), atbp... na ang kabuoang repormang hinihiling ay:
# ...pagwakas sa kasalukuyang segregasyon nangyayari at pagtataguyod ng pantay na lipunan sa lahat ng naninirahan sa kolonyang Pilipinas
# ...gawin probinsya ng Espana ang Pilipinas
# ...magkaroon ng kinatawang Pilipino sa pamahalaang Madrid, Espana
# ...pagtataguyod ng mga libreng paaralan para lahat ng mga naninirahan sa buong kapuluan
# ...pagwawalang bisa sa patakarang "polo" (labor service) at "vandala" (forced sale of local products to the government)
# ...bigyan ng pagkakataon ang sino man na naninirahan sa buong kapuluan na makipagkalakalan, tuloy bawasan ng monipolyong karapatan sa kalakalan ng mga penisulares at sangley.

Ang radikal na ideya ni Padre Pedro Pelaez at "El Conde Filipino" Luis Rodriguez Verela, ganoon din ang mga radikal na creoles na sina Manuel Zumalde at Jose Javier de Torres, ay nakapagbukas sa mapusok na kaisipan ni Padre Jose Burgos, na naging estudyante at disipulo ni Padre Pedro Pelaez. Bagamat lahat sila'y Kastilang creoles at pinagmamalaki na sila ay "Filipino," tulad din ng ginawang insureksyon ng creoles na si Andres Novales sa Maynila (Intramuros, "Palmero Revolt of 1828), silang lahat ay hindi sangayon na humiwalay ang Pilipinas sa "Madre Espana."

Dahil sa himagsikang naganap at naging malaya ang Mexico na "viceroy" ng Pilipinas, sana'y tayo rin ay lubos na malaya na noong pang 1821, kasabay din nito'y ang pagbubukas ng Suez Canal sa Ehipto na nakapagpaigsi ng paglalakbay Europa at Asia, ang kolonyang Pilipinas ay direktang hinawakan na ng Madre Espana. Dahil din sa maigsing paglalabay patungong Espana mula Pilipinas sa pamamagitan ng Suez Canal, ang mga nagsipagyamang mga mestizos dahil sa korap na Galleon Trade, ay nakapagaral at nakapaglakbay sa Europa. Tuloy ang ginawang pagtungo at naranasang kabuhayan sa Europa ay nakapagbigay "liwanag" sa mga indios/tagalog kaya't sila ay tinawag na "Ilustrados" (the enlightened ones). Hiniram at ipinagpatuloy ng ang ilustrados ang kakaiba at radikal na ideya ng mga "Primer Filipinos" at tinawag ang kanilang binuong samahan na "Indios Bravos."

Dahil din sa diskriminasyon na niraranas ng mga ilustradong "Indios Bravos" mula sa mga peninsulares, insulares at mestizos, sila ay gumawa rin ng manipestong na hinintulad mula sa mga creoles na "Primer Filipinos:"
# ...gawin probinsya ng Espana ang Pilipinas
# ...taging uring ilustrado tulad nila lamang ang bigyan ng karapatan na gawing kinatawan na Pilipino sa pamahalaang Madrid, sa Espana
# ...palitan ang lahat ng kura-parokong Kastila ng Pilipinong paring sekular ng mga paroko at sityo
# ...layang makapagtipon at makapagpahayag
# ...pantay sa mata ng batas ang sino man tao na nasa ano man kinatatayuan na hagdanan ng lipunan

Subalit tulad din ng mga creoles na "Primer Filipinos," ang mga ilustrados ay hindi sangayon na humiwalay ang Pilipinas sa Madre Espana. Ito'y kanilang pinaliwanag sa repormanistang propagandang pahayagan na nilimbag sa Barcelona at tinaguyod noong ika-15 ng Pebrero, 1889 - "La Solidaridad" upang mapaliwanag at maintindihan ng pamahalaang Madrid ang repormang hinahangad at minumungkahi ng mga ilustrados. Ang La Solidaridad na pinamunuan ng ilustradong Galicano Apacible (pinsan ni Jose Rizal) at ang naging editor nito na si Graciano Lopez Jaena. Maraming mga ilustradong nagambag ng kanilang artikulong mga sinasaloob na damdamin sa propagandang pahayagan La Solidaridad, subalit dahil sa pangambang sila'y matunton ng mga Kastilang cortes sa kanilang paguwi sa Pilipinas, hindi nila ginamit ang kanilang tunay na pangalan kung di'y kanilang "nom de plume:"
# Graciano Lopez Jaena (Diego Laura)
# Dr. Jose Rizal (Laong Laan at Dimasalang)
# Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel)
# Antonio Luna (Taga-Ilog)
# Mariano Ponce (Tikbalang)
# Jose Maria Panganiban (Jomapa)
...ganoon din ang iba pang mga nagambag ng kanilang mga artikulo: Jose Alejandrino, Anastacio Carpio, Eduardo de Lete, Juan Luna, Miguel Moran, Pedro Paterno, Antonio Maria Reyes, Ferdinand Blumentritt at Miguel Morayta Sagrario.

Ang propagandang pahayagang La Solidaridad ay tumagal mula 1889 hangang 1895, na nakapaglabas nang 160 sipi sa loob nang halos pitong taong tinagal nito. Pinagpatuloy ang pagiging editor propagandang pahayagan ni Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel), hangang sa pagsasara at pinakahuling sipi nito noong ika-15 ng Nobyembre, 1895 sa dahilang wala nang magabuloy ng halaga na pagpapatuloy ng paglilimbag nito at sustentong kinabubuhay ng editor na si Plaridel. Sa kahuli-hulihang sipi ng La Solidaridad bilang pagpapaalam, sinulat ni Plaridel ang ganito...
"Estamos convencidos de que no hay sacrificios son demasiado poco para ganar los derechos y la libertad de una nación que es oprimida por la esclavitud." ("We are persuaded that no sacrifices are too little to win the rights and the liberty of a nation that is oppressed by slavery.")

Bagamat maraming naniniwala na ang repormanistang pahayagang La Solidaridad ay isa sa mga maraming dahilan na nakapagbigay ng ideya patungo sa armadong himagsikan ng Supremo Bonifacio at Gat Emilio Jacinto, ito'y pinabulaan ni Gat Emilio Jacinto, na nagsabi...
"Pitong taung walang tigil na ang La Solidaridad ay kusang nagpumilit na iniubos ang buong lakas niya, upang tamuhin natin ang mga matamo ng kaunting karapatan sa kabuhayan ng tao, at ano ang inabot niyang pala sa mga pagud at panahung ginugol? Pangako, daya, alipusta at mapait na pagkamatay"
- Ika-6 na pahayag ni Gat Emilio Jacinto sa kanyang "Sa mga Kababayan" (Editorial para sa Diariong Kalayaan)

- ka tony
ika-16 ng Pebrero, 2015

Thursday, July 6, 2017

He Sheltered Bonifacio When The *KKK Faltered





(*KKK = Tagalog name for the society: "Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang Katipunan nang mga Anak nang Bayan" (English: "Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Children of the nation ")

Isabelo Donato y Aquilar sheltered Bonifacio, Supremo of the Katipunan, and performed espionage work for him during those perilous days of the secret society at the risk of his life. For his invaluable services to the cause of the Philippine Revolution, Bonifacio gave him the bolo which he wielded on the battlefield as a historic memento.

Although of the landed gentry, Donato identified himself early in youth with the working class with whose sad plight he commiserated. Following his association with Bonifacio, which started when he set up his house and an apartment for rent on Soler near the Tutuban railroad station, a few meters away from Bonifacio's old house on Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto), he became a rabid sympathizer of the Katipunan.

After Bonifacio suffered reverses in the hands of the Spaniards at Pinaglabanan and the Langka River, he sought the help of Donato. Early in September, 1896 the supremo, together with his brother, Procopio, and Emilio Jacinto, left their hideout in Balara to set up headquarters in Manila.

Before settling down in the city, the trio took refuge in Donato's house at 168 Soler while he looked for a safer retreat in San Nicolas. Bonifacio finally chose the house at 116 Lavezares. Besides providing them with food and supplies for more than two months, Donato conducted intelligence work in nearby Intramuros for the revolutionary movement.

His tremendous success in this delicate espionage mission, which greatly helped Bonifacio in preparing his second plan to capture Manila, endeared him most to the Katipunan leader who rewarded him generously. 

With the significant role he played in the Katipunan, Donato lived in constant danger. The Spanish police blacklisted him and persistently went after him. As a precaution he left instruction to his wife to hang a red blanket on their front window should the authority look for him, so he could avoid them and give him ample time to flee to the nearby mountains.

After Bonifacio's departure early 1897 for San Francisco de Malabon in Cavite where he was eventually executed, Donato continued to suffer serious reverses. First, his father, who was a Freemason, was arrested, imprisoned at Fort Santiago, and mercilessly tortured. Then during the Philippine-American war his entire property in Aranque, Manila, consisting of a row of commercial and apartment houses was burned by the retreating Filipino forces to delay the advance of the more powerful American invaders.

The eldest of the three children of the couple Capitan Manuel Donato, a prosperous city businessman, and Gregoria Aquilar, a Dutch mestiza, he was born in Santa Cruz, Manila, on July 7, 1866. After taking up the land surveying course at the University of Santo Tomas, he left the comfort of his easy life as a promising businessman to heed the call of patriotic duty. He joined Freemasonry's Lodge Walana.

Left practically penniless after the two wars against Spain and America, Donato had to start all over again to support his growing family. He became a wine dealer, then an insurance underwriter of the Tambunting estate.

Through sheer determination, perseverance and industry, he was able to give his family the comfort and abundance of his pre-revolutionary life.

Donato married early and early became a widower with one child, Pilar. By his second wife, Hipolita San Juan of Manila, he had seven children, four of whom became professionals. He was 59 when he died in Manila on Sept. 6, 1925. 

# many thanks and much obliged Doc. Jim Richardson for sharing and sending me this old newspaper article about my grandfather.
- ka tony

Saturday, June 10, 2017

June 12, 1898 Philippine Independence Day?



..it had been raining hard for a week and Kawit, Cavite was deep in mud but June 12, 1898 the sun was shining, the muddy patriots shouting “Viva la Independencia!” as the Philippine flag was waved outside the window of Aguinaldo’s mansion. Emilio Aguinaldo went ahead with his proclamation and decided to make it in Kawit, not in Bacoor where his headquarters was because he said “I had more fame and influence in Kawit.” Ambrosio Rianzares read the Acta de la Independencia “We proclaim and solemnly declare in the name and by the authority of the inhabitants of all these Philippine Islands, that they are and have a right to be free and independent. The nation this day commence to have a life of its own” and the band played Julian Felipe’s “Marcha Nacional Filipina." American Admiral George Dewey was invited to the ceremonies but because of the warnings from Washington, he instead sent a representative. After the proclamation there were no receptions nor a celebration. That afternoon the house of Aguinaldo was crowded and at about two o’clock Apolinario Mabini arrived in a hammock coming from Laguna de Bay that took ten days to carry him to Kawit. Aguinaldo ordered that Mabini to be taken up stairs where they can talk alone. Mabini shook his head, disapproving at the declaration of independence saying its “premature and brash.” 

Aguinaldo never explain why he chose June 12 for the Kawit proclamation but as early as June his plans which were carried out the view of Manila, his army were advancing on the capital, seemed to fall into his hands and he wanted to enter Intramuros (Manila) declare victory as the dictator of an independent government. He recall that as early as June 5th, 1898, he had notified the Americans that he would be proclaiming the independence of the Philippines. Aguinaldo later claim that Admiral Dewey advised him not to take Intramuros (Manila) yet and wait for the arrival of the American land troops, so the two “allied” armies could enter Intramuros together. On the other hand the Americans were already denying any “alliance” with the Filipinos when the gullible Aguinaldo proclaimed freedom with the idea that the Americans would support it. Though Aguinaldo’s armies, not the Americans that conquered Manila, its arrabales and moreover controlled the whole country. Only this piece of peninsulares' land Walled City Intramuros, the capital of the colonial Philippines and the only Spanish province outside Spain, held out but after three months of siege to which Aguinaldo had subjected it, Intramuros as well in the 13th of August was about to fall to the Filipinos. Only the secret pact between Spanish Governor-General Fermin Jaudenes with Admiral Dewey and General Merritt enable the Americans to take what they have not won:

1) Governor-General Jaudenes want the Americans to swear not to allow the advancing troops of Filipinos enter Intramuros. 
2) Jaudenes, the remaining armed Spanish troops and peninsulares will formally and only will surrender to the Americans and not to the Filipinos.

Not only was Aguinaldo ordered not to enter the fallen city of Intramuros by the Americans, he was ordered to leave Manila's surrounding arrabales (Malate, San Miguel, Sta. Mesa, Sampaloc, Tondo) that were already occupied by victorious Filipino troops, the lack of common sense Aguinaldo pursed the gringos' order. In any principles and regulations of war, Americans had no right to occupy what they had not won or conquered, they only won from Admirante Patricio Montojo’s Spanish squadron was Manila Bay and to use that victory to claim the entire Philippines.

Every month of March during the birthday of Aguinaldo with his few remaining loyal friends, the easily duped general redundantly wishing that he might see before he died the Independence Day of the Philippines celebrated not on July 4th that was given by the Americans but on June 12th, the day on which he proclaimed in 1898, in Kawit the independence of the Philippines. 

In 1961 Filipino nationalist, Founder/Chairman of the National Heroes Commission and Secretary of Education Alejandro “Anding” Roces passed a resolution requesting to adopt and declare June 12 as Independence Day for the Republic of the Philippines, not until 1962 was there a celebration of June 12 as a presidential decree by then President Diosdado Macapagal. 

President Macapagal wrote Secretary Roces, the rest of his cabinet and close friends:

The opportunity came when the US House of Representatives rejected the $73 million additional war payment bill on May 9, 1962. There was indignation among the Filipinos. There was a loss of American good will in the Philippines, although this was restored later by the reconsideration of the action of the US lower chamber. At this time, a state visit in the United States had been scheduled for Mrs. Macapagal and me on the initiative and invitation of President John F. Kennedy. Unable to resist the pressure of public opinion, I was constrained to obtain the agreement of Kennedy to defer the state visit for another time.
To postpone the state visit, I wrote a letter on May 14, 1962, to Kennedy, which read in part as follows:
The feeling of resentment among our people and the attitude of the US Congress negate the atmosphere of good will upon which my state visit to your country was predicated. Our people would never understand how, in the circumstances now obtaining, I could go to the United States and in all honesty affirm that I bear their message of good will. It is with deep regret therefore that I am constrained to ask you to agree to the postponement of my visit to a more auspicious time.

On May 28, 1962, Kennedy wrote me explaining the situation on the war damage bill. His letter stated:

"In the meantime, I must respect your decision that your visit to the United States should be postponed. We do not want your visit to be less than first class, when it comes. But I do hope that we will be able to find another convenient time."

I decided to effect the change of independence day at that time not as an act of resentment but as a judicious choice of timing for the taking of an action which had previously been decided upon.

In my address on the first June 12 as independence day celebration, I said:

"In the discharge of my responsibility as President of the Republic, I moved the observance of the anniversary of our independence to this day because a nation is born into freedom on the day when such a people, moulded into a nation by the process of cultural evolution and a sense of oneness born of common struggle and suffering, announces to the world that it asserts its natural right to liberty and is ready to defend it with blood, life, and honor."

While we were seated at the grandstand during the ceremonies, General Aguinaldo thanked me again for the rectification of an erroneous historical practice and then asked:
 "When will there be an Aguinaldo monument at the Luneta like that of Rizal?” 
I could not answer the question: 
"The next generation might have the answer."

"...Ang tunay na kalayaan ay hindi ibinibigay o hinahandog, ang kalayaan ay pinagbubuwisan ng buhay, pinagdadanakan ng dugo, pawis at luha upang ito'y matamo!” 
- ka tony
the 12th of June, 2017 

Monday, May 29, 2017

Dekalogo ng Katipunan ng Supremo Andres Bonifacio



...ang Supremo Bonifacio ang unang nakaisip na sumulat ng dekalogong pang etika na susundin at gagawing basehang kautusan ng Masang Katipunan. Sinulat niya ang sampung kautusan base rin sa bilang ng sampung kautusan ng Diyos, bago niya ito ipalimbag at ibahagi sa mga Katipunero'y kaniya na munang ipinabasa sa kaniyang kabiyak na si Aling Oryang. Kaniya rin sana ito ipababasa sa kaniyang kanang kamay na si Emilio Jacinto, subalit naunahan siyang ipinabasa sa kaniya ang sinulat ni Jacinto na "Kartilya ng Katipunan."

Matapos na mabasa ng Supremo ang sinulat ni Jacinto na Kartilya ng Katipunan, ay nagsabi na... "ito'y ating ipalimbag at ipamahagi sa ating mga Kapatid upang ito ang sundin na kautusan ng Katipunan." Nang umuwi ang Supremo at tanungin siya ni Aling Oryang kung pinabasa niya kay Jacinto ang sinulat na "Dekalogo" ang tugon ng Supremo ay... "napakaganda ng sinulat na "Kartilya" ng Kapatid na Jacinto, tulo'y hindi ko na ipinabasa."
- ka tony
ika-20 ng Agosto, 2015

"Dakalogo ng Katipunan" - mga katungkulang gagawin ng mga Anak ng Bayan.
1) ...Sumampalataya sa MayKapal ng taimtim sa puso.
2) ...Gunamgunamin sa sarili tuina, na ang matapat na pag sampalataya sa Kanya ay ang pag ibig sa lupang tinubuan, sa pagkat ito ang tunay na pag ibig sa kapwa.
3) ...Ykintal sa puso ang pag asa na malabis na kapurihan at kapalaran na kung ikamamatay ng tawoy mag bubuhat sa pagliligtas sa kaalipinan ng bayan.
4) ...Sa kalamigan ng loob, katiagaan, katuiran at pag asa sa ano mang gagawin nag bubuhat ang ikagaganap ng mabuting ninanais.
5) ...Paingat ingatang gaya ng puri ang mga bilin at balak ng K... K... K....
6) ...Sa isang na sa sapanganib sa pag tupad ng kanyang tungkol, idadamay ng lahat, ang buhay at yaman upang maligtas yaon.
7) ...Hangarin na ang kalagayan ng isatisa, maging huaran ng kanyang kapwa sa mabuting pagpapasunod at pag tupad ng kanyang tungkol.
8) ...Bahaginan ng makakaya ang alin mang nagdaralita.
9) ...Ang kasipagan sa pag hahanap-buhay ay siyang tunay na pag ibig at pag mamahal sa sarili sa asawa, anak at kapatid o kabayan.
10) ...Lubos na pag sampalataya sa parusang ilinalaang sa balang sowail at magtaksil, gayon din sa pala na kakamtan ukol sa mabuting gawa. Sampalatayanan din naman na ang mga layong tinutungo ng K... K... K... ay kaloob ng Maykapal, sa makatwid ang hangad ng bayan ay hangad din Nya.

Trece de Agosto



Many old streets in Manila were named "Trece de Agosto," this was the day when Manila fell to the hands of the Americans in 1898 and was declared a public holiday (Republic Act 214) during the American colonial years, celebrated the day in Manila by a long parade of American troops. The taking over of Manila later the whole Philippines by the Americans was invalid, it was Aguinaldo's rebel forces not the Americans who vanquished the Spaniards in the arrabales (suburbs of Intramuros [Manila]) and controlled the rest of the country. American war correspondent F.D. Miller wrote… "the Insurgents had accomplished wonders in forcing the enemy (Spanish) to retire to their inner line of defenses, though they were practically without artiller." The U.S. government used "Trece de Agosto" to confirm their takeover of the Philippines and made the whole archipelago their colony. 

A secret pact between the Spanish Governor-General Fermin Jaudenes, American Admiral George Dewey and General Wesley Merritt enable the Americans to claim and take what they have not won. Aguinaldo and his rebel troops were not allowed to enter Spanish Intramuros (Manila) were also ordered to leave and give up what they have already won and occupied areas like Malate, San Miguel, Sta. Mesa, Sampaloc and Tondo. Under the law of war, Americans had no right to occupy what they have not conquered they used their victory at Manila Bay to possess the whole country. The Americans broke the peace treaty when they took Spanish Intramuros (Manila) on August 13, 1898 because on August 12, the U.S. President McKinley had ordered a suspension of all military operations against the enemy because the U.S. and Spain agreed to a peace meet in Paris (Treaty of Paris). When the Americans occupied Manila on August 13, a cease of any act of hostilities had been proclaimed and all U.S. land and sea commanders had been ordered to avoid from actions inconsistent with that proclamation. So the occupation of the city is invalid, illegal and against the orders of the president who is the commander in chief. Admiral George Dewey knew this and gave part of the same order "Land soldiers are not allowed any positions, save several hundred yards from the Insurgents’ frontlines."

The illegal occupation of Manila didn't stop General Merritt not to leave or vacate Intramuros, scared that the Filipino rebels who were the real victors might take over the city, who were stopped from entering the city while the Americans raised their flag inside the wall city and claimed the victory. The U.S. won not only the peace meet in Paris but bought the last island colonies of Spain: Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines with Guam for $20 million and the treaty was signed on December 10, 1898 and ended the Spanish-American War but ensuing Philippine-American War that the U.S. claim of the Philippines colony they "maintained" for more than half century because of a mock-battle, pretended victory that was invalid and illegal. But this is not the end of it, after 47 years it happened again. During World War 2, General Douglas MacArthur escaped for a sure capture of the invading Japanese forces, left his duties, responsibilities and his troops that were taken prisoners. The Hubalahap and other Filipino guerrillas were already winning the war against the bankrupt Japanese imperialists. MacArthur returned and claimed the victory and the "liberation of Manila" was indeed the destruction of Manila which is unnecessary, the bombing that killed many Filipino civilians was an act to show Uncle Sam's power to the world and to rebuild MacArthur's ego that was damaged when Bataan and Corregidor were surrendered, when he abandoned his duties, responsibilities and his American soldiers taken prisoners by the Japanese. Manila was second to Warsaw as the most devastated cities after WW-2. The sad part about this destruction, Uncle Sam with MacArthur's recommendation right after WW-2, helped and aided Japan the enemy, abandoned his colony the Philippines, gave the country a fake independence to avoid expensive reparation which he himself destroyed.
- ka tony
the 13th of August, 2016

Saturday, April 8, 2017

The 9th of April, 1942 - Fall of Bataan



..the morning of the 3rd of April, 1942 was Good Friday, it was also the day the Japanese launched their offensive at the foot of Mount Samat in Bataan where the U.S. Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) last stand. At three o'clock in the afternoon the Japanese began with massive artillery followed by their "red zero" planes dropped incendiary bombs and created flame and smoke, the Japanese troops started the attack. By nightfall the Japanese reached the USAFFE defense lines. 

The two US generals: Edward King and Henry Jones in Bataan, who by the 8th of April saw the futility of another counterattack ordered by General Jonathan Wainwright the commander MacArthur left in charge of the USAFFE before he escaped from a sure imprisonment by the advancing Japanese armed forces. On the afternoon of April 8, General King sent a messenger name General Arnold Funk to Wainwright in Corregidor, that Bataan might fall at any moment. Almost at the same time Wainwright received a telegram from MacArthur from Australia stating: "I am utterly opposed to capitulation. If food fails, you will execute an attack upon the enemy." ...in other words MacArthur is expecting his generals to die fighting. Another telegram was received later by Wainwright was an order from US President Roosevelt forbidding surrender: "So long as there remains any possibility of resistance."

Wainwright told General Funk his message to King: "General, you go back and tell General King he will not surrender. Tell him he will attack. Those are my orders." ...tears springing to Funk's eyes and said: "General, you know of course what the situation there. You know what the outcome will be." Wainwright replied saying: "I do!"

With 70,000 troops on Bataan General Edward P. King grandson of a Confederate General of the Civil War, fell the grisly choice between annihilation and surrender, between obeying Wainwright and Roosevelt and saving the lives of his soldiers after months of fighting the invading Japanese Army where food and medicine exhausted. At six in the morning, General King chose to surrender his troops on the 9th of April, 1942, two Americans emissaries were sent to the Japanese lines under the white flag of truce to arrange a meet. 

Around 3:30 AM of April 9, Col. Everett Williams and Maj. Marshall Hurt volunteered to make contact with the Japanese, decided to leave before sunrise. King gave Williams a piece of paper requesting a meeting with the Japanese officer commanding the Bataan Army and gave Williams the authority to negotiate a surrender. They acquired a jeep, a driver and the three then proceeded north, towards the Japanese lines. Sometime after 5:30 AM, they were intercepted by Japanese troops. Williams showed the Sergeant in charge the letter from King with his instructions. After some tense moments, the Japanese Sergeant boarded the American Jeep and they drove north where they met Gen. Kameichiro Nagano who agreed to meet Gen. King near the frontline. 

The Japanese retained Col. Williams and sent Maj. Hurt back to Gen. King’s headquarters. Soon after Gen. King, Col. Collier, Maj. Wade Cothran, Capt. Tisdelle and Maj. Hurt boarded two jeeps and drove towards the experimental farm in Lamao. During their drive, they were strafed by Japanese planes. Japanese troops intercepted them at the Lamao River Bridge. King and his officers were escorted to the experimental farm station. Gen. Nagano told King that a representative of the Japanese 14th Army would soon arrive and at 11:00 AM a Col. Motoo Nakayama, senior operations officer for the 14th Army. Col. Nakayama thought Gen. King was Gen. Wainwright. When King explained that he was not Gen. Wainwright, Col. Nakayama told King to go get Wainwright, King explained he could not contact Wainwright and he only had authority to surrender the forces on Bataan, not the Filipino-American forces of the Philippines. Col. Nakayama replied that he could not accept a piecemeal surrender of just the Bataan forces. Again he told Gen. King that no surrender could be accepted or the cessation of hostilities would be granted without the presence of Gen. Wainwright surrendering the entire Filipino-American forces of the Philippines.

After more heated discussion and Nakayama refusing to accept the surrender of the Bataan forces, Nakayama later agreed to accept the individual, unconditional surrender of Gen. King as an individual. The distinction is that no force or entity was ever surrendered, since the surrender of only a part of the Filipino-American forces could not be accepted by Col. Nakayama. There were no terms of surrender to be discussed, Nakayama insisted on holding to his linguistic distinction between personal surrender and the surrender of a force. King asked if he surrendered, would his troops be treated well, Col. Nakayama only replied: "We are not Barbarians." Gen. King agreed to surrender and Nakayama asked for King’s sword. King apologized and said he did not have his sword because he left it in Manila, he did convinced them to take his pistol. No surrender document was prepared or signed nor was any effort made to formalize the surrender. The Japanese concluded that the surrender negotiations had failed, Nakayama wrote: "The surrender of the American Philippine Forces in the Bataan Peninsula was accomplished by the voluntary and unconditional surrender of each individual. The negotiations for the cessation of hostilities failed." From the Japanese perspective, no force was ever surrendered, only individuals surrendered and Nakayama left. Col. Collier and Maj. Hurt were allowed to return to the American lines with Gen. King’s order to surrender. 

King never informed Wainwright, a move which would cost him professionally. He wanted the responsibility all to himself saying: "You men remember this. You did not surrender ... you had no alternative but to obey my order." ...That night in Corregidor Wainwright received an odd message from Roosevelt, who said that he was leaving to Wainwright's best judgement "any decision affecting Netherlands future of Bataan garrison." Roosevelt thus revoked his order of no surrender on the very day of surrender, when it was too late and there was no need to revoke it. 

King spent three and half years as a captive of the Japanese and was often mistreated by them because of his rank. In a meeting with his troops prior to being sent to a POW Camp in Manchuria, he assured his men, in a tearful farewell, that he alone was responsible for the surrender. In General King’s own words: "We were asked to lay down a bunt. We did just that. You have nothing to be ashamed of." 

It is also important to point out that General King's decision to surrender on April 9, 1942, he surrendered the largest military force in American History. Then again his courageous act saved the lives of thousands of his troops, who would have been annihilated by the Japanese if he had not surrendered. General Masaharu Homma, commander of the Japanese 14th Army, refused to see General King and ordered Colonel Motoo Nakayama to face King & his officers. In the book "Ghost Soldiers" by Hampton Sides describes the surrender scene... "From the start Nakayama was greatly confused about the nature of King’s relationship to Wainwright and just what it was that King was offering to surrender." As far as the Japanese were concerned, Bataan and Corregidor were one and the same and insisted on the presence of Wainwright. When King brought up the Geneva Convention and expressed concern about the safety of his men, he was brusquely cut off with Nakayama saying... "The Imperial Japanese Army are not barbarians." ...General King had no way of knowing the horrors they would face in captivity, including the Bataan Death March. King spent three and half years as a captive of the Japanese. Both Wainwright & King expected court-martial for disobeying the no-surrender order. However, they were freed finally. After the war General King returned to the US where he retired to a home in Georgia, he died peacefully on August 31, 1958 at the aged of 74.
- ka tony
the 9th of April '16

Thursday, July 14, 2016

Ang Masang Katipunan at ang French Revolution

















Ginugunita ang kahalagahan ng ika-14 ng Hulyo ng bansang Pransya bilang "Fall of the Bastille." Ang "Bastille Saint-Antoine" ay isang "medieval fortress" at bilanguan na dito kinukulong ang mga kriminal, may-sira ang ulo at ang mga burgesyang tulad nila: Voltaire, Marquis de Sade, atbp... na laban sa pamamalakad ng monarkya, dito'y na kulong din. Sinalakay ng magkasamang lakas ng masa at burgesya ang napakahirap pasukin at pasukuin na Bastille, subalit ito'y matagumpay na napasok at napasuko noong ika-14 ng Hulyo, 1789.

Umabot ng 107 taon pagkatapos ng French Revolution nasa distrito ng San Nicolas, arrabales ng Intramuros nagmamasid, pinagaaralan at nagpaplano sa binabalak din ng Supremo Andres Bonifacio na pasukin at pasukuin ang "medieval fortress" ng mga peninsulares sa Intramuros (Maynila). Inaalam kung kailan ipapadala sa Mindanao na kung saan ay may pagaalsa ang mga Muslim ang malakas na pwersa ng mga Kastila na nasa Intramuros, kung ano ang mabisang paraan upang pasukin at patayin ang kuryente na nagbibigay ng kuryente sa Intramuros ng La Electricista de Manila sa Quiapo na magbibigay din ng hudyat sa mga Caviteno na lumusob at paligiran ang Intramuros at kasabay din nito ang pagsalakay ng pangkat ng Supremo Bonifacio sa El Deposito sa San Juan del Monte upang makuha ang mga sandata ng mga Kastila na doon nakalagak.


Ang pinangalingang konsepto at idelohiya ng Masang Katipunan ng Supremo Bonifacio ay ang French Revolution na kaniyang pinagaralan at nagbigay diwa sa kaniya. Ang pinangalingan din ng konsepto, idelohiya at dyalektika ng Proletaryong Komonismo ni Karl Marx ay French Revolution at Industrial Revolution. Ang kabuoang layunin ng Masang Katipunan ay tulad din sa mithing layunin at sinigaw na "mantra" ng French Revolution "Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite" ("Kalayaan, Kapantayan, Kapatiran"). Ang orihinal na pinangalingan ng "Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite" ay mula kay Antoine-François Momoro isang manlilimbag ng mga aklat at ginamit naman ito ni Olympe de Gouges na pinahalagahan ang "Fraternite" para sa buong kababaihan sa Pransya upang makapantay ang mga kalalakihan sa pakikibakang himagsikan. Ganito rin kahalaga sa Supremo Bonifacio ang "Kapatiran" upang makapagbigay diwang pagkakaisa sa pakikibaka, kaya't ipinairal na tawagan sa kapwa Katipunero, ang "Kapatid" o "Ka" bago bangitin ang pangalan.


Nagsanhing inspirasyon naman sa French Revolution ay ang na unang himagsikang ginawa ng hilagang Amerika na dito napatunayan na ang makapangyarihan na sandatahang lakas ng kolonyalistang Britania ay maaaring pabagsakin ng kulang sa armas subalit nagkakaisang diwa sa layuning kalayaan ng mga taong bayan. Kaya't ng sabihin ni Rizal na kinakailangan ng maraming sandata at lubos na pagsasanay upang simulan ang himagsikan, ang sagot ng Supremo Bonifacio ay... "saan ito nabasa ni Rizal at anong himagsikan sa mundo na pumutok at ang mga nakikibaka'y handa na at marami nang sandata?"


...ang layunin sa paglunsad ng Masang Katipunan ng Supremo Bonifacio ay para sa:

a) ...kabuoang kalayaan ng Haring Bayang Katagalugan sa kolonyalistang Espania sa pamamagitan ng armadong himagsikan.
b) ...kunin, ibalik at ipaghati-hati ang mga lupa, kayamanan at ari-ariang kinamkam, inagaw, inilit at ninakaw ng mga prayle at Kastilang cortes mula sa mga mahihirap at mga magsasakang Katagalugan.
c) ...ibagsak ang eletistang lipunan na pinairal ng mga Kastila at itaguyod ang pantay na lipunan.

"...Andres Bonifacio, an employee of a foreign business house in Manila, was the leading spirit of the Katipunan; gathering his ideas of modern reform from reading Spanish treatises on the French revolution, he had imbibed also a notion that the methods of the mob in Paris where those best adapted to secure amelioration for the Filipinos. His ideas where those of a socialist and of a socialist of the French revolution type and he thought them applicable to an undeveloped tropical country, where the pressure of industrial competition is almost unknown and where with the slightest reasonable exertion, starvation may be dismissed from thought." 

- James LeRoy (adviser of Governor-General William Howard Taft)

"...The Katipunan came out from the cover of secret designs, threw off the cloak of any other purpose and stood openly for the independence of the Philippines. Bonifacio turned his lodges into battalions, his grandmasters into captains and the supreme council of the Katipunan into the insurgent government of the Philippines." 

- John R.M. Taylor (custodian of the Philippine Insurgent Records)

Napakalaking inspirasyon ang dinulot ng French Revolution sa Industrial Revolution. Dito'y napatunayan na ang makalumang paniniwala at kapangyarihan ng daynastiyang kapitalistang kamaganakan, simbahan, elit na lipunan at naghaharing uring monarkya ay maaaring masugpo at ihiwalay sa pamamagitan ng nagkakaisang kamay ng mangagawang industriyal sa ikabubuti ng sambayanan. Ito ang nagdulot ng diwa sa isipan ni Karl Marx sa kaniyang Communist Manifesto, para sa kapakanan ng "anak pawis" na proletaryong manggagawa, magsasaka at kahalagahan ng "surplus value" para sa kanila. Hinalintulad din sa French Revolution na sa pamamagitan lamang ng armadong proletaryong himagsikan laban sa pwedalismo, kapitalismo, kolonyalismo at imperyalismo, ang natatanging paraan upang makapagpundar ng pantay na lipunang Sosyalismo. Ang ginamit na paraan ng French Revolution ay walang hangang terorismo o "reign of terror" laban sa monarkya at aristokrat, maging ang paghatol ng malagim na kamatayang "guillotine" sa mga may sala na pinamalas ng mga naghimagsik sa publiko upang magsilbing aral, mapatunayan at maipatupad ang mithing layunin.


Ang Masang Katipunan ng Supremo Bonifacio ay kauna-unahang nasyonalismong himagsikan sa buong Asia, samantalang ang proletaryong manggagawa at magsasakang Komunistang himagsikan na nilunsad ni Lenin sa Rusya ay kauna-unahan sa sangkatauhan. Kaya't kung ipaguugnay ang dalawang himagsikan na nilunsad ng Supremo Bonifacio at ng bansang Rusya, ito ay binuo sa sinilang na nasyonalismo at proletaryong armadong himagsikan ng Communist Party of the Philippines na nagsimula nang magtipon ang mga magsasaka, masang manggagawa ng "Templo del Trabajo" at "Obrero Democratica de Filipinas" sa Plaza Morriones, Tondo noong ika-1 ng Mayo, 1903. Sila ay nagmartsa patungong Malacanan na kung saan nandoon ang American Governor-General William Howard Taft. Tila bandila ang taglay na mga larawan ng Supremo Andres Bonifacio ng mga nagsipagaklas na nagmamartsa. Ang pagaklas na ito'y nauwi sa kaguluhan tuloy ito ay pinaratangan na isang sidisyon, ginawang labag sa batas ang paggamit sa bandilang Pilipinas at pati larawan ng Supremo, na naging sagisag ng himaksikan, tuloy lalong nagpababa sa imahen ng Supremo bilang pangunahing pambansang bayani ng Pilipinas sa mata ng pamahalaang kolonyal.


Ang kataksilang pagpatay sa burgesyang Supremo Bonifacio, ay sa kamay din ng kapwa nilang burgesyang ambisyosong politiko ang kinawakasan ng buhay ng burgesyang Georges Danton at Maximilien Robespierre na nagpasimuno ng French Revolution. Ang French Revolution ay nagdulot ng magandang halimbawa sa buong mundo, sa idelohiya, pamahalaan, industriya at patakarang panglipunan at ang bansang Pransya ay nagkaroon ng matibay na diwang makabayan, inalis ang kapangyarihan ng monarkya, lipunang elit at simbahan, nagwakas ang pwedalismo at nakapagtatag ng hukbong lakas para sa sambayanan.


Sa isang banda, ang himagsikan ng Masang Katipunan ng Supremo Bonifacio ay inagaw ng mga taksil na ilustrado, ipinagbili sa kaaway sa Biak na Bato at sa bandang huli'y nakipagsabwatan sa bagong gringong kolonyalista upang mabigyan ang mga ito ng maliit na kapangyarihan sa kolonyal na pamahalaan. Ang gringong kolonyalista ay 'di tulad ng mga kolonyalistang Kastila na kung maaari'y huwag tangapin tayong mga indio sa kanilang itinaguyod na paaralan sa ating bansa na napakamahal ang twisyon, tuloy mga mayayamang ilustrado lamang ang may kayang makapagaral samantalang ang dukhang masa'y nanatiling mangmang. Ang kolonyalistang gringo'y sapilitan tayong pinagaral sa itinayo nilang "public school" o libreng paaralan at nilimbag na mga teksbuks, upang ituro at matutunan ang kanilang wika, kasaysayan at kultura na kasama sa kanilang "pacification program" na magsisilbing "brain washing program" upang ang ating puso at isipan manatili ang patuloy na proseso sa pagiral ng ating "colonial mentality." Siniraan at ginawang krimen ang idelohyang Sosyalismo at Komunismo upang madali nilang takutin ang lipunang may "amerkanong kaisipan" at maipagpatuloy ang kanilang imperyalistang militarismo at kapitalistang ekonomiya. Ginamit din ang paraang pananakot na ito sa mga mamamayan ng mga papet na pangulo lalo noong dekada 70 ng diktador marcos, hindi lamang upang takutin ang taong bayan, upang takutin din si Tiyo Samuel sa kunwa'y mabilis na paglaganap ng Komunismo at mga kaguluhang terorismo, ng sagayo'y ipagpatuloy ang pagsusuporta sa kaniyang diktadorya.


Subalit papaano nating mahihiwalay at maiiba ang diwa at kaluluwa sa iisang konsepto na pinangalingan ng masang pakikibaka ng Katipunan at Sosyalismo na ang pinagmulan ay ang French Revolution na ginawang basehan ng Supremo Bonifacio? Marami ng idineklarang kalayaan subalit wala pang naisagawa, naitatag, nakamit o natamong tunay na kabuoang kalayaan, sapagkat kinahihiya at natatakot ang sambayanan na matawag na Sosyalista o Komunista upang ipagpatuloy ang naputol na Sosyalistang Masang Himagsikan ng Katipunan, upang maipagpatuloy din ang naputol na uliran, banal at napakalinis na walang bahid ng korapsyon at kolonyalismo... Ang Pamahalaan ng Haring Bayang Katagalugan na tinatag ng Unang Pangulong Supremo Andres Bonifacio!

- ka tony
Bastille Day, ika-14 ng Hulyo, 2015