Monday, April 16, 2018

US Army and its armed Philippine Constabulary’s Counterinsurgency was an Integrated Military and Civilian Effort Against General Sakay





























General Macario Sakay and his men operated in Morong, Laguna, Cavite, and Tayabas, made Mt. Cristobal his headquarters but later moved to the mountains of Morong. His Republika ng Katagalugan was supported by the masses of Morong, Laguna, Batangas, and Cavite. The US armed Philippine Constabulary constantly complained to the municipal authorities for supporting and cooperating with Sakay who taxed hacienderos, merchants, farmers and laborers ten percent of their income only on those who could pay, but to those who refused to do so will to be arrested and forced to hard labor. Spies and informers were liquidated, tortured or had their ears and lips cut off as a warning to others.

In late 1904 General Sakay took military offensive, disguised in Philippine Constabulary uniforms they were successful in capturing a US military garrison in Parañaque, seized large amount of revolvers, carbines and ammunition. General Sakay's men often employed these uniforms to confuse the enemy. The US Army and their armed Philippine Constabulary launched the operation they did in Batangas that forced General Miguel Malvar and his men to surrender: “divide and rule,” “search and destroy,” “poisoned the soil,” “drain the swamp,” “liquidate anything that can be eaten” and “hamlet program” on the areas where General Sakay received strong assistance. These cruel counter-insurgency operations proved disastrous to General Sakay’s men and Filipino masses. The forced movement, relocation of large number people to expose the rebels, shortage of food and water caused the outbreak of diseases like cholera and dysentery. Food was scarce in the area and in camps, resulting in numerous deaths. Dominador Gomez mentioned the bad condition in General Sakay’s camp to the Americans upon his meeting with General Villafuerte, the malnourished general in his uniform tightened by a belt to hold his pants up, tried very hard to stand without the aid of a cane despite his malarial fever.
- ka tony







Gat Macario Sakay a mislabeled hero, his misplaced monument and mistaken historical facts






































The first & only monument of Gat Macario Sakay on Plaza Morga, Tondo, finally unveiled by Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim on September of 2008, finally acknowledge as hero after 101 years when American colonialists and their Filipino sajonistas labeled him as “tulisan” was found guilty, sentenced and hanged under the US colonial court. The mislabeled hero with his misplaced monument also have mistaken historical facts on the plaque prepared by Manila Historical and Heritage Commission. 

a) ...the plaque and many historians assumed Sakay’s birth year was 1870 but his 1907 death certificate recorded he was 29 years old at the time of his execution should have been 37 years old instead. The truth is Sakay was born out of wedlock, date and year of his birth unknown, he never knew, never met his father, even his last name “Sakay” is his mother’s family name. The big question is from whom and where did his middle name “Leon” came from?

b) ...the plaque states that Sakay was born in Calle Tabora, Tondo. The district of Tondo, San Nicolas and Binondo didn’t change much their boundaries even their street names since Spanish colonial time. Calle Tabora was named after Spanish Governor-General Juan Niño de Tabora who brought the image of Nuestra Señor dela Paz y Buen Viaje of Antipolo during the Manila/Acapulco Galleon Trade. Calle Tabora is not in Tondo, but in the district of San Nicolas cuz Calle Azcarraga (now Recto Avenue) where Divisoria (Spanish word meaning “dividing”) is located serves as dividing line or boundary for Manila’s districts of San Nicolas, Binondo, Tondo, Sta. Cruz and Quiapo. 

c) ...the plaque also said that Raja Sulayman like Sakay is from Tondo which is again wrong, Raja Sulayman is from the new Kingdom of May-Nilad where Intramuros now stands which is across the Pasig River from Tondo the Old Kingdom of Lankandula and Magat Salamat. Tondo was a province of Pampanga (from “ka-pampang” meaning of the same riverbank of Pasig River and Pampanga River). 

Gat Macario Sakay is not a “Tondeño” (from Tondo) but from San Nicolas and his only monument at Plaza Morga in Tondo was erected on the wrong district. Though we should be grateful that finally after many years the name “Sakay” will erase the picture that pops into our mind of a “longhaired vicious tulisan” but a patriotic hero who continued the long revolution of masses of Supremo Bonifacio and Gat Emilio Jacinto’s Katipunan.
- ka tony
28 of February, ‘18

Pamahalaan ng Republika ng Katagalugan






















...sitting from left to right:
# Lt. Col. Jualian Montalan - Montalan was an ally of Bonifacio from the founding of the Katipunan in 1892 where he rose from the ranks of Magdiwang and head the revolutionary forces in Cavite. He was aggressive and ruthless in meeting out sentences to those who betrayed the Republika ng Katagalugan. He was moved to Iwahig Penal Colony, in Palawan after Bilibid. 

# Lt. Gen. Francisco Carreon y Marcos - joined the Katipunan following the footsteps of his cousin Emilio Jacinto, eventually elected to the Katipunan Supreme Council. Despite serving at the time as a councilor in the Katipunan, he was drafted in the Spanish colonial guardia civil. When Gen. Sakay then took to the hills and established the Republika ng Katagalugan, Carreón served as both Sakay's vice president and executive secretary, he drafted manifestos of the Republika ng Katagalugan. Carreón was imprisoned in the old Bilibid Prison and was later released in 1930 through a pardon.

# Macario Sakay (President of Republika ng Katagalugan and overall commander of the Revolutionary Army. 

# Maj. Gen. Leon Villafuerte - born on April 11, 1887 in Guiquinto, Bulacan, before joining Gen. Sakay, he had a sweetheart named Basilisa Sotto of Del Pan, San Nicolas who latter died and for this reason Villafuerte joined the revolution. He became a general at the age of 24, latter met Maria Martinez, married her.

...Standing left to right:
# Maj. Benito Natividad - (not related to the Natividad of Nueva Ecija) was commanding Tanawan, Batangas. He was sentenced to 30 years but immediately pardoned thereafter. 

# Lt. Col. Lucio de Vega - commanding Cavite. Most ruthless and vicious of Gen. Sakay’s generals as Montalan and the assassinated Cornelio Felizardo. De Vega’s wife was captured by the Philippine Constabulary and who was allegedly made a concubine of a P.C. officer. 

...the source of this picture was among the personal documents of Gen. Sakay’s Republika ng Katagalugan confiscated by the Americans.
(many thanks to I.J.R.A. for the colorization of the original sepia picture)
- ka tony

Thursday, August 31, 2017

Ang radikal na ideyang "Primer Filipino" (First Filipino)













"Primer Filipino" (First Filipino) - ay makatulad o makawangis ang Kastila, sa wikang Ingles ito'y "assimilation." Tulad ng karamihang mga bansa ngayon sa Amerika na dati'y kolonya rin ng Espana, ang mga naghimagsik laban sa kolonyalismo upang maging isang malayang bansa ay ang mga Kastilang nagtungo at nanirahan doon, mga "creoles" na naging anak nila na doon isinilang at mga mestizo na pinanganak mula sa dugong Kastila at katutubo.
Sa lahat ng naging kolonya ng Espana, Pilipinas lang ang bukod tanging masang lipunan "Indio/Tagalog" ang nagtaas ng kanilang kamao na sinimulan ng Supremo Andres Bonifacio at Gat Emilio Jacinto, himagsikang para sa kabuoang kalayaan laban sa kolonyalismo. Hindi tulad ng ating "viceroy" na Mexico na mga Kastila, creoles at mestizos ang siyang naghimagsik at humiwalay sa "Madre Espana." Ang hagdanan ng lipunan noong panahon ng mga Kastila sa Pilipinas ay ang mga sumusunod:
1) ...penisulares - Kastilang naninirahan sa kolonyang Pilipinas na ipinanganak sa Espana
2) ...insulares/creoles - mga anak ng purong Kastila na ipinanganak sa Pilipinas
3) ...mestizos - anak ng Kastila at Indio
4) ...indio/tagalog - dugong Tagalog o Katutubo
5) ...sangley - Insik

Dahil sa diskriminasyong tinatangap ng mga insulares/creoles at mestizos mula sa mga penisulares, nagkaisa ang mga creoles na magbuo ng samahang propaganda na sinimulan ng radikal ng paring creole Pedro Pelaez, na sumulat noong 1880 kay Reyna Isabel ng Espana sa pagtataguyod ng Sekular na Simbahan ng Pilipinas, sanhi rin ng nararanasang diskriminasyon ng mga paring creoles mula sa mga peninsulares. Sa lahat ng mga creoles/insulares na itinaguyod at pinagmalaki ang hagdan ng lipunan na kaniyang kinatatayuan ay si Don Luis Rodriguez Verela (El Conde Filipino), ang kauna-unahang creoles/insulares na tinawag at pinagmalaki ang kaniyang sarili na "Primer Filipino" (First Filipino). Ang radikal na ideya ni Padre Pedro Pelaez at idelohiya ng Rebolusyon ng mga Pranses ay pinagsama ni Luis Rodriguez Verela sa kaniyang mga sinulat na mga aklat, tulad ng: "El Parnaso Filipino" (Filipino Parnas), "Elogio a las provincias de la Espana Europea" (Eulogy to the provinces of Spain), "Himno Patriotico que en la Solemne publicacion de la Constitucion Espanola en la Capital del Reyno de Filipinas" (Anthem patriotic to the solemn publication of the Spanish Constitution in the Capital of the Kingdom of the Philippines), atbp... na ang kabuoang repormang hinihiling ay:
# ...pagwakas sa kasalukuyang segregasyon nangyayari at pagtataguyod ng pantay na lipunan sa lahat ng naninirahan sa kolonyang Pilipinas
# ...gawin probinsya ng Espana ang Pilipinas
# ...magkaroon ng kinatawang Pilipino sa pamahalaang Madrid, Espana
# ...pagtataguyod ng mga libreng paaralan para lahat ng mga naninirahan sa buong kapuluan
# ...pagwawalang bisa sa patakarang "polo" (labor service) at "vandala" (forced sale of local products to the government)
# ...bigyan ng pagkakataon ang sino man na naninirahan sa buong kapuluan na makipagkalakalan, tuloy bawasan ng monipolyong karapatan sa kalakalan ng mga penisulares at sangley.

Ang radikal na ideya ni Padre Pedro Pelaez at "El Conde Filipino" Luis Rodriguez Verela, ganoon din ang mga radikal na creoles na sina Manuel Zumalde at Jose Javier de Torres, ay nakapagbukas sa mapusok na kaisipan ni Padre Jose Burgos, na naging estudyante at disipulo ni Padre Pedro Pelaez. Bagamat lahat sila'y Kastilang creoles at pinagmamalaki na sila ay "Filipino," tulad din ng ginawang insureksyon ng creoles na si Andres Novales sa Maynila (Intramuros, "Palmero Revolt of 1828), silang lahat ay hindi sangayon na humiwalay ang Pilipinas sa "Madre Espana."

Dahil sa himagsikang naganap at naging malaya ang Mexico na "viceroy" ng Pilipinas, sana'y tayo rin ay lubos na malaya na noong pang 1821, kasabay din nito'y ang pagbubukas ng Suez Canal sa Ehipto na nakapagpaigsi ng paglalakbay Europa at Asia, ang kolonyang Pilipinas ay direktang hinawakan na ng Madre Espana. Dahil din sa maigsing paglalabay patungong Espana mula Pilipinas sa pamamagitan ng Suez Canal, ang mga nagsipagyamang mga mestizos dahil sa korap na Galleon Trade, ay nakapagaral at nakapaglakbay sa Europa. Tuloy ang ginawang pagtungo at naranasang kabuhayan sa Europa ay nakapagbigay "liwanag" sa mga indios/tagalog kaya't sila ay tinawag na "Ilustrados" (the enlightened ones). Hiniram at ipinagpatuloy ng ang ilustrados ang kakaiba at radikal na ideya ng mga "Primer Filipinos" at tinawag ang kanilang binuong samahan na "Indios Bravos."

Dahil din sa diskriminasyon na niraranas ng mga ilustradong "Indios Bravos" mula sa mga peninsulares, insulares at mestizos, sila ay gumawa rin ng manipestong na hinintulad mula sa mga creoles na "Primer Filipinos:"
# ...gawin probinsya ng Espana ang Pilipinas
# ...taging uring ilustrado tulad nila lamang ang bigyan ng karapatan na gawing kinatawan na Pilipino sa pamahalaang Madrid, sa Espana
# ...palitan ang lahat ng kura-parokong Kastila ng Pilipinong paring sekular ng mga paroko at sityo
# ...layang makapagtipon at makapagpahayag
# ...pantay sa mata ng batas ang sino man tao na nasa ano man kinatatayuan na hagdanan ng lipunan

Subalit tulad din ng mga creoles na "Primer Filipinos," ang mga ilustrados ay hindi sangayon na humiwalay ang Pilipinas sa Madre Espana. Ito'y kanilang pinaliwanag sa repormanistang propagandang pahayagan na nilimbag sa Barcelona at tinaguyod noong ika-15 ng Pebrero, 1889 - "La Solidaridad" upang mapaliwanag at maintindihan ng pamahalaang Madrid ang repormang hinahangad at minumungkahi ng mga ilustrados. Ang La Solidaridad na pinamunuan ng ilustradong Galicano Apacible (pinsan ni Jose Rizal) at ang naging editor nito na si Graciano Lopez Jaena. Maraming mga ilustradong nagambag ng kanilang artikulong mga sinasaloob na damdamin sa propagandang pahayagan La Solidaridad, subalit dahil sa pangambang sila'y matunton ng mga Kastilang cortes sa kanilang paguwi sa Pilipinas, hindi nila ginamit ang kanilang tunay na pangalan kung di'y kanilang "nom de plume:"
# Graciano Lopez Jaena (Diego Laura)
# Dr. Jose Rizal (Laong Laan at Dimasalang)
# Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel)
# Antonio Luna (Taga-Ilog)
# Mariano Ponce (Tikbalang)
# Jose Maria Panganiban (Jomapa)
...ganoon din ang iba pang mga nagambag ng kanilang mga artikulo: Jose Alejandrino, Anastacio Carpio, Eduardo de Lete, Juan Luna, Miguel Moran, Pedro Paterno, Antonio Maria Reyes, Ferdinand Blumentritt at Miguel Morayta Sagrario.

Ang propagandang pahayagang La Solidaridad ay tumagal mula 1889 hangang 1895, na nakapaglabas nang 160 sipi sa loob nang halos pitong taong tinagal nito. Pinagpatuloy ang pagiging editor propagandang pahayagan ni Marcelo H. del Pilar (Plaridel), hangang sa pagsasara at pinakahuling sipi nito noong ika-15 ng Nobyembre, 1895 sa dahilang wala nang magabuloy ng halaga na pagpapatuloy ng paglilimbag nito at sustentong kinabubuhay ng editor na si Plaridel. Sa kahuli-hulihang sipi ng La Solidaridad bilang pagpapaalam, sinulat ni Plaridel ang ganito...
"Estamos convencidos de que no hay sacrificios son demasiado poco para ganar los derechos y la libertad de una nación que es oprimida por la esclavitud." ("We are persuaded that no sacrifices are too little to win the rights and the liberty of a nation that is oppressed by slavery.")

Bagamat maraming naniniwala na ang repormanistang pahayagang La Solidaridad ay isa sa mga maraming dahilan na nakapagbigay ng ideya patungo sa armadong himagsikan ng Supremo Bonifacio at Gat Emilio Jacinto, ito'y pinabulaan ni Gat Emilio Jacinto, na nagsabi...
"Pitong taung walang tigil na ang La Solidaridad ay kusang nagpumilit na iniubos ang buong lakas niya, upang tamuhin natin ang mga matamo ng kaunting karapatan sa kabuhayan ng tao, at ano ang inabot niyang pala sa mga pagud at panahung ginugol? Pangako, daya, alipusta at mapait na pagkamatay"
- Ika-6 na pahayag ni Gat Emilio Jacinto sa kanyang "Sa mga Kababayan" (Editorial para sa Diariong Kalayaan)

- ka tony
ika-16 ng Pebrero, 2015

Thursday, July 6, 2017

He Sheltered Bonifacio When The *KKK Faltered





(*KKK = Tagalog name for the society: "Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang Katipunan nang mga Anak nang Bayan" (English: "Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Children of the nation ")

Isabelo Donato y Aquilar sheltered Bonifacio, Supremo of the Katipunan, and performed espionage work for him during those perilous days of the secret society at the risk of his life. For his invaluable services to the cause of the Philippine Revolution, Bonifacio gave him the bolo which he wielded on the battlefield as a historic memento.

Although of the landed gentry, Donato identified himself early in youth with the working class with whose sad plight he commiserated. Following his association with Bonifacio, which started when he set up his house and an apartment for rent on Soler near the Tutuban railroad station, a few meters away from Bonifacio's old house on Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto), he became a rabid sympathizer of the Katipunan.

After Bonifacio suffered reverses in the hands of the Spaniards at Pinaglabanan and the Langka River, he sought the help of Donato. Early in September, 1896 the supremo, together with his brother, Procopio, and Emilio Jacinto, left their hideout in Balara to set up headquarters in Manila.

Before settling down in the city, the trio took refuge in Donato's house at 168 Soler while he looked for a safer retreat in San Nicolas. Bonifacio finally chose the house at 116 Lavezares. Besides providing them with food and supplies for more than two months, Donato conducted intelligence work in nearby Intramuros for the revolutionary movement.

His tremendous success in this delicate espionage mission, which greatly helped Bonifacio in preparing his second plan to capture Manila, endeared him most to the Katipunan leader who rewarded him generously. 

With the significant role he played in the Katipunan, Donato lived in constant danger. The Spanish police blacklisted him and persistently went after him. As a precaution he left instruction to his wife to hang a red blanket on their front window should the authority look for him, so he could avoid them and give him ample time to flee to the nearby mountains.

After Bonifacio's departure early 1897 for San Francisco de Malabon in Cavite where he was eventually executed, Donato continued to suffer serious reverses. First, his father, who was a Freemason, was arrested, imprisoned at Fort Santiago, and mercilessly tortured. Then during the Philippine-American war his entire property in Aranque, Manila, consisting of a row of commercial and apartment houses was burned by the retreating Filipino forces to delay the advance of the more powerful American invaders.

The eldest of the three children of the couple Capitan Manuel Donato, a prosperous city businessman, and Gregoria Aquilar, a Dutch mestiza, he was born in Santa Cruz, Manila, on July 7, 1866. After taking up the land surveying course at the University of Santo Tomas, he left the comfort of his easy life as a promising businessman to heed the call of patriotic duty. He joined Freemasonry's Lodge Walana.

Left practically penniless after the two wars against Spain and America, Donato had to start all over again to support his growing family. He became a wine dealer, then an insurance underwriter of the Tambunting estate.

Through sheer determination, perseverance and industry, he was able to give his family the comfort and abundance of his pre-revolutionary life.

Donato married early and early became a widower with one child, Pilar. By his second wife, Hipolita San Juan of Manila, he had seven children, four of whom became professionals. He was 59 when he died in Manila on Sept. 6, 1925. 

# many thanks and much obliged Doc. Jim Richardson for sharing and sending me this old newspaper article about my grandfather.
- ka tony

Saturday, June 10, 2017

June 12, 1898 Philippine Independence Day?



..it had been raining hard for a week and Kawit, Cavite was deep in mud but June 12, 1898 the sun was shining, the muddy patriots shouting “Viva la Independencia!” as the Philippine flag was waved outside the window of Aguinaldo’s mansion. Emilio Aguinaldo went ahead with his proclamation and decided to make it in Kawit, not in Bacoor where his headquarters was because he said “I had more fame and influence in Kawit.” Ambrosio Rianzares read the Acta de la Independencia “We proclaim and solemnly declare in the name and by the authority of the inhabitants of all these Philippine Islands, that they are and have a right to be free and independent. The nation this day commence to have a life of its own” and the band played Julian Felipe’s “Marcha Nacional Filipina." American Admiral George Dewey was invited to the ceremonies but because of the warnings from Washington, he instead sent a representative. After the proclamation there were no receptions nor a celebration. That afternoon the headquarters of Aguinaldo in Bacoor was crowded and at about two o’clock Apolinario Mabini arrived in a hammock coming from Laguna de Bay that took ten days to carry him to Bacoor. Aguinaldo ordered that Mabini to be taken up stairs where they can talk alone. Mabini shook his head, disapproving at the declaration of independence saying its “premature and brash.” 

Aguinaldo never explain why he chose June 12 for the Kawit proclamation but as early as June his plans which were carried out the view of Manila, his army were advancing on the capital, seemed to fall into his hands and he wanted to enter Intramuros (Manila) declare victory as the dictator of an independent government. He recall that as early as June 5th, 1898, he had notified the Americans that he would be proclaiming the independence of the Philippines. Aguinaldo later claim that Admiral Dewey advised him not to take Intramuros (Manila) yet and wait for the arrival of the American land troops, so the two “allied” armies could enter Intramuros together. On the other hand the Americans were already denying any “alliance” with the Filipinos when the gullible Aguinaldo proclaimed freedom with the idea that the Americans would support it. Though Aguinaldo’s armies, not the Americans that conquered Manila, its arrabales and moreover controlled the whole country. Only this piece of peninsulares' land Walled City Intramuros, the capital of the colonial Philippines and the only Spanish province outside Spain, held out but after three months of siege to which Aguinaldo had subjected it, Intramuros as well in the 13th of August was about to fall to the Filipinos. Only the secret pact between Spanish Governor-General Fermin Jaudenes with Admiral Dewey and General Merritt enable the Americans to take what they have not won:

1) Governor-General Jaudenes want the Americans to swear not to allow the advancing troops of Filipinos enter Intramuros. 
2) Jaudenes, the remaining armed Spanish troops and peninsulares will formally and only will surrender to the Americans and not to the Filipinos.

Not only was Aguinaldo ordered not to enter the fallen city of Intramuros by the Americans, he was ordered to leave Manila's surrounding arrabales (Malate, San Miguel, Sta. Mesa, Sampaloc, Tondo) that were already occupied by victorious Filipino troops, Aguinaldo pursed the gringos' order. In any principles and regulations of war, Americans had no right to occupy what they had not won or conquered, they only won from Admirante Patricio Montojo’s Spanish squadron was Manila Bay and to use that victory to claim the entire Philippines.

Every month of March during the birthday of Aguinaldo with his few remaining loyal friends, the easily duped general redundantly wishing that he might see before he died the Independence Day of the Philippines celebrated not on July 4th that was given by the Americans but on June 12th, the day on which he proclaimed in 1898, in Kawit the independence of the Philippines. 

In 1961 Filipino nationalist, Founder/Chairman of the National Heroes Commission and Secretary of Education Alejandro “Anding” Roces passed a resolution requesting to adopt and declare June 12 as Independence Day for the Republic of the Philippines, not until 1962 was there a celebration of June 12 as a presidential decree by then President Diosdado Macapagal. 

President Macapagal wrote Secretary Roces, the rest of his cabinet and close friends:

The opportunity came when the US House of Representatives rejected the $73 million additional war payment bill on May 9, 1962. There was indignation among the Filipinos. There was a loss of American good will in the Philippines, although this was restored later by the reconsideration of the action of the US lower chamber. At this time, a state visit in the United States had been scheduled for Mrs. Macapagal and me on the initiative and invitation of President John F. Kennedy. Unable to resist the pressure of public opinion, I was constrained to obtain the agreement of Kennedy to defer the state visit for another time.
To postpone the state visit, I wrote a letter on May 14, 1962, to Kennedy, which read in part as follows:
The feeling of resentment among our people and the attitude of the US Congress negate the atmosphere of good will upon which my state visit to your country was predicated. Our people would never understand how, in the circumstances now obtaining, I could go to the United States and in all honesty affirm that I bear their message of good will. It is with deep regret therefore that I am constrained to ask you to agree to the postponement of my visit to a more auspicious time.

On May 28, 1962, Kennedy wrote me explaining the situation on the war damage bill. His letter stated:

"In the meantime, I must respect your decision that your visit to the United States should be postponed. We do not want your visit to be less than first class, when it comes. But I do hope that we will be able to find another convenient time."

I decided to effect the change of independence day at that time not as an act of resentment but as a judicious choice of timing for the taking of an action which had previously been decided upon.

In my address on the first June 12 as independence day celebration, I said:

"In the discharge of my responsibility as President of the Republic, I moved the observance of the anniversary of our independence to this day because a nation is born into freedom on the day when such a people, moulded into a nation by the process of cultural evolution and a sense of oneness born of common struggle and suffering, announces to the world that it asserts its natural right to liberty and is ready to defend it with blood, life, and honor."

While we were seated at the grandstand during the ceremonies, General Aguinaldo thanked me again for the rectification of an erroneous historical practice and then asked:
 "When will there be an Aguinaldo monument at the Luneta like that of Rizal?” 
I could not answer the question: 
"The next generation might have the answer."

"...Ang tunay na kalayaan ay hindi ibinibigay o hinahandog, ang kalayaan ay pinagbubuwisan ng buhay, pinagdadanakan ng dugo, pawis at luha upang ito'y matamo!” 
- ka tony
the 12th of June, 2017 

Monday, May 29, 2017

Dekalogo ng Katipunan ng Supremo Andres Bonifacio



...ang Supremo Bonifacio ang unang nakaisip na sumulat ng dekalogong pang etika na susundin at gagawing basehang kautusan ng Masang Katipunan. Sinulat niya ang sampung kautusan base rin sa bilang ng sampung kautusan ng Diyos, bago niya ito ipalimbag at ibahagi sa mga Katipunero'y kaniya na munang ipinabasa sa kaniyang kabiyak na si Aling Oryang. Kaniya rin sana ito ipababasa sa kaniyang kanang kamay na si Emilio Jacinto, subalit naunahan siyang ipinabasa sa kaniya ang sinulat ni Jacinto na "Kartilya ng Katipunan."

Matapos na mabasa ng Supremo ang sinulat ni Jacinto na Kartilya ng Katipunan, ay nagsabi na... "ito'y ating ipalimbag at ipamahagi sa ating mga Kapatid upang ito ang sundin na kautusan ng Katipunan." Nang umuwi ang Supremo at tanungin siya ni Aling Oryang kung pinabasa niya kay Jacinto ang sinulat na "Dekalogo" ang tugon ng Supremo ay... "napakaganda ng sinulat na "Kartilya" ng Kapatid na Jacinto, tulo'y hindi ko na ipinabasa."
- ka tony
ika-20 ng Agosto, 2015

"Dakalogo ng Katipunan" - mga katungkulang gagawin ng mga Anak ng Bayan.
1) ...Sumampalataya sa MayKapal ng taimtim sa puso.
2) ...Gunamgunamin sa sarili tuina, na ang matapat na pag sampalataya sa Kanya ay ang pag ibig sa lupang tinubuan, sa pagkat ito ang tunay na pag ibig sa kapwa.
3) ...Ykintal sa puso ang pag asa na malabis na kapurihan at kapalaran na kung ikamamatay ng tawoy mag bubuhat sa pagliligtas sa kaalipinan ng bayan.
4) ...Sa kalamigan ng loob, katiagaan, katuiran at pag asa sa ano mang gagawin nag bubuhat ang ikagaganap ng mabuting ninanais.
5) ...Paingat ingatang gaya ng puri ang mga bilin at balak ng K... K... K....
6) ...Sa isang na sa sapanganib sa pag tupad ng kanyang tungkol, idadamay ng lahat, ang buhay at yaman upang maligtas yaon.
7) ...Hangarin na ang kalagayan ng isatisa, maging huaran ng kanyang kapwa sa mabuting pagpapasunod at pag tupad ng kanyang tungkol.
8) ...Bahaginan ng makakaya ang alin mang nagdaralita.
9) ...Ang kasipagan sa pag hahanap-buhay ay siyang tunay na pag ibig at pag mamahal sa sarili sa asawa, anak at kapatid o kabayan.
10) ...Lubos na pag sampalataya sa parusang ilinalaang sa balang sowail at magtaksil, gayon din sa pala na kakamtan ukol sa mabuting gawa. Sampalatayanan din naman na ang mga layong tinutungo ng K... K... K... ay kaloob ng Maykapal, sa makatwid ang hangad ng bayan ay hangad din Nya.