Saturday, April 8, 2017

The 9th of April, 1942 - Fall of Bataan

..the morning of the 3rd of April, 1942 was Good Friday, it was also the day the Japanese launched their offensive at the foot of Mount Samat in Bataan where the U.S. Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) last stand. At three o'clock in the afternoon the Japanese began with massive artillery followed by their "red zero" planes dropped incendiary bombs and created flame and smoke, the Japanese troops started the attack. By nightfall the Japanese reached the USAFFE defense lines. 

The two US generals: Edward King and Henry Jones in Bataan, who by the 8th of April saw the futility of another counterattack ordered by General Jonathan Wainwright the commander MacArthur left in charge of the USAFFE before he escaped from a sure imprisonment by the advancing Japanese armed forces. On the afternoon of April 8, General King sent a messenger name General Arnold Funk to Wainwright in Corregidor, that Bataan might fall at any moment. Almost at the same time Wainwright received a telegram from MacArthur from Australia stating: "I am utterly opposed to capitulation. If food fails, you will execute an attack upon the enemy." other words MacArthur is expecting his generals to die fighting. Another telegram was received later by Wainwright was an order from US President Roosevelt forbidding surrender: "So long as there remains any possibility of resistance."

Wainwright told General Funk his message to King: "General, you go back and tell General King he will not surrender. Tell him he will attack. Those are my orders." ...tears springing to Funk's eyes and said: "General, you know of course what the situation there. You know what the outcome will be." Wainwright replied saying: "I do!"

With 70,000 troops on Bataan General Edward P. King grandson of a Confederate General of the Civil War, fell the grisly choice between annihilation and surrender, between obeying Wainwright and Roosevelt and saving the lives of his soldiers after months of fighting the invading Japanese Army where food and medicine exhausted. At six in the morning, General King chose to surrender his troops on the 9th of April, 1942, two Americans emissaries were sent to the Japanese lines under the white flag of truce to arrange a meet. 

Around 3:30 AM of April 9, Col. Everett Williams and Maj. Marshall Hurt volunteered to make contact with the Japanese, decided to leave before sunrise. King gave Williams a piece of paper requesting a meeting with the Japanese officer commanding the Bataan Army and gave Williams the authority to negotiate a surrender. They acquired a jeep, a driver and the three then proceeded north, towards the Japanese lines. Sometime after 5:30 AM, they were intercepted by Japanese troops. Williams showed the Sergeant in charge the letter from King with his instructions. After some tense moments, the Japanese Sergeant boarded the American Jeep and they drove north where they met Gen. Kameichiro Nagano who agreed to meet Gen. King near the frontline. 

The Japanese retained Col. Williams and sent Maj. Hurt back to Gen. King’s headquarters. Soon after Gen. King, Col. Collier, Maj. Wade Cothran, Capt. Tisdelle and Maj. Hurt boarded two jeeps and drove towards the experimental farm in Lamao. During their drive, they were strafed by Japanese planes. Japanese troops intercepted them at the Lamao River Bridge. King and his officers were escorted to the experimental farm station. Gen. Nagano told King that a representative of the Japanese 14th Army would soon arrive and at 11:00 AM a Col. Motoo Nakayama, senior operations officer for the 14th Army. Col. Nakayama thought Gen. King was Gen. Wainwright. When King explained that he was not Gen. Wainwright, Col. Nakayama told King to go get Wainwright, King explained he could not contact Wainwright and he only had authority to surrender the forces on Bataan, not the Filipino-American forces of the Philippines. Col. Nakayama replied that he could not accept a piecemeal surrender of just the Bataan forces. Again he told Gen. King that no surrender could be accepted or the cessation of hostilities would be granted without the presence of Gen. Wainwright surrendering the entire Filipino-American forces of the Philippines.

After more heated discussion and Nakayama refusing to accept the surrender of the Bataan forces, Nakayama later agreed to accept the individual, unconditional surrender of Gen. King as an individual. The distinction is that no force or entity was ever surrendered, since the surrender of only a part of the Filipino-American forces could not be accepted by Col. Nakayama. There were no terms of surrender to be discussed, Nakayama insisted on holding to his linguistic distinction between personal surrender and the surrender of a force. King asked if he surrendered, would his troops be treated well, Col. Nakayama only replied: "We are not Barbarians." Gen. King agreed to surrender and Nakayama asked for King’s sword. King apologized and said he did not have his sword because he left it in Manila, he did convinced them to take his pistol. No surrender document was prepared or signed nor was any effort made to formalize the surrender. The Japanese concluded that the surrender negotiations had failed, Nakayama wrote: "The surrender of the American Philippine Forces in the Bataan Peninsula was accomplished by the voluntary and unconditional surrender of each individual. The negotiations for the cessation of hostilities failed." From the Japanese perspective, no force was ever surrendered, only individuals surrendered and Nakayama left. Col. Collier and Maj. Hurt were allowed to return to the American lines with Gen. King’s order to surrender. 

King never informed Wainwright, a move which would cost him professionally. He wanted the responsibility all to himself saying: "You men remember this. You did not surrender ... you had no alternative but to obey my order." ...That night in Corregidor Wainwright received an odd message from Roosevelt, who said that he was leaving to Wainwright's best judgement "any decision affecting Netherlands future of Bataan garrison." Roosevelt thus revoked his order of no surrender on the very day of surrender, when it was too late and there was no need to revoke it. 

King spent three and half years as a captive of the Japanese and was often mistreated by them because of his rank. In a meeting with his troops prior to being sent to a POW Camp in Manchuria, he assured his men, in a tearful farewell, that he alone was responsible for the surrender. In General King’s own words: "We were asked to lay down a bunt. We did just that. You have nothing to be ashamed of." 

It is also important to point out that General King's decision to surrender on April 9, 1942, he surrendered the largest military force in American History. Then again his courageous act saved the lives of thousands of his troops, who would have been annihilated by the Japanese if he had not surrendered. General Masaharu Homma, commander of the Japanese 14th Army, refused to see General King and ordered Colonel Motoo Nakayama to face King & his officers. In the book "Ghost Soldiers" by Hampton Sides describes the surrender scene... "From the start Nakayama was greatly confused about the nature of King’s relationship to Wainwright and just what it was that King was offering to surrender." As far as the Japanese were concerned, Bataan and Corregidor were one and the same and insisted on the presence of Wainwright. When King brought up the Geneva Convention and expressed concern about the safety of his men, he was brusquely cut off with Nakayama saying... "The Imperial Japanese Army are not barbarians." ...General King had no way of knowing the horrors they would face in captivity, including the Bataan Death March. King spent three and half years as a captive of the Japanese. Both Wainwright & King expected court-martial for disobeying the no-surrender order. However, they were freed finally. After the war General King returned to the US where he retired to a home in Georgia, he died peacefully on August 31, 1958 at the aged of 74.
- ka tony
the 9th of April '16

Thursday, July 14, 2016

Ang Masang Katipunan at ang French Revolution

Ginugunita ang kahalagahan ng ika-14 ng Hulyo ng bansang Pransya bilang "Fall of the Bastille." Ang "Bastille Saint-Antoine" ay isang "medieval fortress" at bilanguan na dito kinukulong ang mga kriminal, may-sira ang ulo at ang mga burgesyang tulad nila: Voltaire, Marquis de Sade, atbp... na laban sa pamamalakad ng monarkya, dito'y na kulong din. Sinalakay ng magkasamang lakas ng masa at burgesya ang napakahirap pasukin at pasukuin na Bastille, subalit ito'y matagumpay na napasok at napasuko noong ika-14 ng Hulyo, 1789.

Umabot ng 107 taon pagkatapos ng French Revolution nasa distrito ng San Nicolas, arrabales ng Intramuros nagmamasid, pinagaaralan at nagpaplano sa binabalak din ng Supremo Andres Bonifacio na pasukin at pasukuin ang "medieval fortress" ng mga peninsulares sa Intramuros (Maynila). Inaalam kung kailan ipapadala sa Mindanao na kung saan ay may pagaalsa ang mga Muslim ang malakas na pwersa ng mga Kastila na nasa Intramuros, kung ano ang mabisang paraan upang pasukin at patayin ang kuryente na nagbibigay ng kuryente sa Intramuros ng La Electricista de Manila sa Quiapo na magbibigay din ng hudyat sa mga Caviteno na lumusob at paligiran ang Intramuros at kasabay din nito ang pagsalakay ng pangkat ng Supremo Bonifacio sa El Deposito sa San Juan del Monte upang makuha ang mga sandata ng mga Kastila na doon nakalagak.

Ang pinangalingang konsepto at idelohiya ng Masang Katipunan ng Supremo Bonifacio ay ang French Revolution na kaniyang pinagaralan at nagbigay diwa sa kaniya. Ang pinangalingan din ng konsepto, idelohiya at dyalektika ng Proletaryong Komonismo ni Karl Marx ay French Revolution at Industrial Revolution. Ang kabuoang layunin ng Masang Katipunan ay tulad din sa mithing layunin at sinigaw na "mantra" ng French Revolution "Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite" ("Kalayaan, Kapantayan, Kapatiran"). Ang orihinal na pinangalingan ng "Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite" ay mula kay Antoine-François Momoro isang manlilimbag ng mga aklat at ginamit naman ito ni Olympe de Gouges na pinahalagahan ang "Fraternite" para sa buong kababaihan sa Pransya upang makapantay ang mga kalalakihan sa pakikibakang himagsikan. Ganito rin kahalaga sa Supremo Bonifacio ang "Kapatiran" upang makapagbigay diwang pagkakaisa sa pakikibaka, kaya't ipinairal na tawagan sa kapwa Katipunero, ang "Kapatid" o "Ka" bago bangitin ang pangalan.

Nagsanhing inspirasyon naman sa French Revolution ay ang na unang himagsikang ginawa ng hilagang Amerika na dito napatunayan na ang makapangyarihan na sandatahang lakas ng kolonyalistang Britania ay maaaring pabagsakin ng kulang sa armas subalit nagkakaisang diwa sa layuning kalayaan ng mga taong bayan. Kaya't ng sabihin ni Rizal na kinakailangan ng maraming sandata at lubos na pagsasanay upang simulan ang himagsikan, ang sagot ng Supremo Bonifacio ay... "saan ito nabasa ni Rizal at anong himagsikan sa mundo na pumutok at ang mga nakikibaka'y handa na at marami nang sandata?"

...ang layunin sa paglunsad ng Masang Katipunan ng Supremo Bonifacio ay para sa:

a) ...kabuoang kalayaan ng Haring Bayang Katagalugan sa kolonyalistang Espania sa pamamagitan ng armadong himagsikan.
b) ...kunin, ibalik at ipaghati-hati ang mga lupa, kayamanan at ari-ariang kinamkam, inagaw, inilit at ninakaw ng mga prayle at Kastilang cortes mula sa mga mahihirap at mga magsasakang Katagalugan.
c) ...ibagsak ang eletistang lipunan na pinairal ng mga Kastila at itaguyod ang pantay na lipunan.

"...Andres Bonifacio, an employee of a foreign business house in Manila, was the leading spirit of the Katipunan; gathering his ideas of modern reform from reading Spanish treatises on the French revolution, he had imbibed also a notion that the methods of the mob in Paris where those best adapted to secure amelioration for the Filipinos. His ideas where those of a socialist and of a socialist of the French revolution type and he thought them applicable to an undeveloped tropical country, where the pressure of industrial competition is almost unknown and where with the slightest reasonable exertion, starvation may be dismissed from thought." 

- James LeRoy (adviser of Governor-General William Howard Taft)

"...The Katipunan came out from the cover of secret designs, threw off the cloak of any other purpose and stood openly for the independence of the Philippines. Bonifacio turned his lodges into battalions, his grandmasters into captains and the supreme council of the Katipunan into the insurgent government of the Philippines." 

- John R.M. Taylor (custodian of the Philippine Insurgent Records)

Napakalaking inspirasyon ang dinulot ng French Revolution sa Industrial Revolution. Dito'y napatunayan na ang makalumang paniniwala at kapangyarihan ng daynastiyang kapitalistang kamaganakan, simbahan, elit na lipunan at naghaharing uring monarkya ay maaaring masugpo at ihiwalay sa pamamagitan ng nagkakaisang kamay ng mangagawang industriyal sa ikabubuti ng sambayanan. Ito ang nagdulot ng diwa sa isipan ni Karl Marx sa kaniyang Communist Manifesto, para sa kapakanan ng "anak pawis" na proletaryong manggagawa, magsasaka at kahalagahan ng "surplus value" para sa kanila. Hinalintulad din sa French Revolution na sa pamamagitan lamang ng armadong proletaryong himagsikan laban sa pwedalismo, kapitalismo, kolonyalismo at imperyalismo, ang natatanging paraan upang makapagpundar ng pantay na lipunang Sosyalismo. Ang ginamit na paraan ng French Revolution ay walang hangang terorismo o "reign of terror" laban sa monarkya at aristokrat, maging ang paghatol ng malagim na kamatayang "guillotine" sa mga may sala na pinamalas ng mga naghimagsik sa publiko upang magsilbing aral, mapatunayan at maipatupad ang mithing layunin.

Ang Masang Katipunan ng Supremo Bonifacio ay kauna-unahang nasyonalismong himagsikan sa buong Asia, samantalang ang proletaryong manggagawa at magsasakang Komunistang himagsikan na nilunsad ni Lenin sa Rusya ay kauna-unahan sa sangkatauhan. Kaya't kung ipaguugnay ang dalawang himagsikan na nilunsad ng Supremo Bonifacio at ng bansang Rusya, ito ay binuo sa sinilang na nasyonalismo at proletaryong armadong himagsikan ng Communist Party of the Philippines na nagsimula nang magtipon ang mga magsasaka, masang manggagawa ng "Templo del Trabajo" at "Obrero Democratica de Filipinas" sa Plaza Morriones, Tondo noong ika-1 ng Mayo, 1903. Sila ay nagmartsa patungong Malacanan na kung saan nandoon ang American Governor-General William Howard Taft. Tila bandila ang taglay na mga larawan ng Supremo Andres Bonifacio ng mga nagsipagaklas na nagmamartsa. Ang pagaklas na ito'y nauwi sa kaguluhan tuloy ito ay pinaratangan na isang sidisyon, ginawang labag sa batas ang paggamit sa bandilang Pilipinas at pati larawan ng Supremo, na naging sagisag ng himaksikan, tuloy lalong nagpababa sa imahen ng Supremo bilang pangunahing pambansang bayani ng Pilipinas sa mata ng pamahalaang kolonyal.

Ang kataksilang pagpatay sa burgesyang Supremo Bonifacio, ay sa kamay din ng kapwa nilang burgesyang ambisyosong politiko ang kinawakasan ng buhay ng burgesyang Georges Danton at Maximilien Robespierre na nagpasimuno ng French Revolution. Ang French Revolution ay nagdulot ng magandang halimbawa sa buong mundo, sa idelohiya, pamahalaan, industriya at patakarang panglipunan at ang bansang Pransya ay nagkaroon ng matibay na diwang makabayan, inalis ang kapangyarihan ng monarkya, lipunang elit at simbahan, nagwakas ang pwedalismo at nakapagtatag ng hukbong lakas para sa sambayanan.

Sa isang banda, ang himagsikan ng Masang Katipunan ng Supremo Bonifacio ay inagaw ng mga taksil na ilustrado, ipinagbili sa kaaway sa Biak na Bato at sa bandang huli'y nakipagsabwatan sa bagong gringong kolonyalista upang mabigyan ang mga ito ng maliit na kapangyarihan sa kolonyal na pamahalaan. Ang gringong kolonyalista ay 'di tulad ng mga kolonyalistang Kastila na kung maaari'y huwag tangapin tayong mga indio sa kanilang itinaguyod na paaralan sa ating bansa na napakamahal ang twisyon, tuloy mga mayayamang ilustrado lamang ang may kayang makapagaral samantalang ang dukhang masa'y nanatiling mangmang. Ang kolonyalistang gringo'y sapilitan tayong pinagaral sa itinayo nilang "public school" o libreng paaralan at nilimbag na mga teksbuks, upang ituro at matutunan ang kanilang wika, kasaysayan at kultura na kasama sa kanilang "pacification program" na magsisilbing "brain washing program" upang ang ating puso at isipan manatili ang patuloy na proseso sa pagiral ng ating "colonial mentality." Siniraan at ginawang krimen ang idelohyang Sosyalismo at Komunismo upang madali nilang takutin ang lipunang may "amerkanong kaisipan" at maipagpatuloy ang kanilang imperyalistang militarismo at kapitalistang ekonomiya. Ginamit din ang paraang pananakot na ito sa mga mamamayan ng mga papet na pangulo lalo noong dekada 70 ng diktador marcos, hindi lamang upang takutin ang taong bayan, upang takutin din si Tiyo Samuel sa kunwa'y mabilis na paglaganap ng Komunismo at mga kaguluhang terorismo, ng sagayo'y ipagpatuloy ang pagsusuporta sa kaniyang diktadorya.

Subalit papaano nating mahihiwalay at maiiba ang diwa at kaluluwa sa iisang konsepto na pinangalingan ng masang pakikibaka ng Katipunan at Sosyalismo na ang pinagmulan ay ang French Revolution na ginawang basehan ng Supremo Bonifacio? Marami ng idineklarang kalayaan subalit wala pang naisagawa, naitatag, nakamit o natamong tunay na kabuoang kalayaan, sapagkat kinahihiya at natatakot ang sambayanan na matawag na Sosyalista o Komunista upang ipagpatuloy ang naputol na Sosyalistang Masang Himagsikan ng Katipunan, upang maipagpatuloy din ang naputol na uliran, banal at napakalinis na walang bahid ng korapsyon at kolonyalismo... Ang Pamahalaan ng Haring Bayang Katagalugan na tinatag ng Unang Pangulong Supremo Andres Bonifacio!

- ka tony
Bastille Day, ika-14 ng Hulyo, 2015

Monday, December 28, 2015

Manila 29 de Deciembre de 1896 - Jose P. Rizal's Retraction

Leon Maria Guerrero author of "The First Filipino" book about Rizal, asked... "Was he innocent or guilty? ...If innocent, why is he a hero? ...If guilty, how can he be a martyr?"

The same questions I asked myself and the answers I have on these questions, I'm leaning towards the retraction of Rizal:
# dissociate himself from the rebellion Rizal offered his services as a military doctor, after staying in Spain for about 8 hours on the way to Cuba October 6, 1896, Rizal was notified to board the boat "S.S. Colon." The boat packed with soldiers, departed at eight o'clock in the evening for the Philippines to face trial & his eventual execution.
# ...while imprisoned in Fort Santiago, he issued a manifesto disavowing the Katipunan revolution & declaring that the education of Filipinos & their achievement of a national identity were prerequisites to freedom; he was to be tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition & conspiracy. Governor-General Ramon Blanco who was sympathetic to Rizal had been forced out of office on December 13. The governor had been attacked by conservative forces (which included the so-called frailocracia -the Dominican friars exercising more power than the civilian government) for being too conciliatory towards the Filipinos who sought independence. Rizal was executed on December 30, an act to which Blanco objected. Blanco later was to present his sash and sword to the Rizal family as an apology.

# ...two Jesuit priests Fathers Padre Balaguer & Padre Luis Viza & Captain Rafael Dominguez were with Rizal during his last hours in the prison cell and were witnesses Rizal signed the retraction. Texts of Rizal’s Retraction the "original" discovered by Fr. Manuel Garcia, C.M. on May 18, 1935 which stated...

"Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir.
Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mi cualidad de hijo de la Iglesia Catolica. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me somento a cuanto ella manda. Abomino de la Masonaria, como enigma que es de la Iglesia, y como Sociedad prohibida por la Iglesia. Puede el Prelado Diocesano, como Autoridad Superior Eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea mia para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen.
Manila 29 de Deciembre de 1896
Jose Rizal"

(**English translation)...
"I retract with all my heart whatever in my words, writings, publications and conduct has been contrary to my character as son of the Catholic Church. I believe and I confess whatever she teaches and I submit to whatever she demands. I abominate Masonry, as the enemy which is of the Church, and as a Society prohibited by the Church. The Diocesan Prelate may, as the Superior Ecclesiastical Authority, make public this spontaneous manifestation of mine in order to repair the scandal which my acts may have caused and so that God and people may pardon me.
Manila 29 of December of 1896
Jose Rizal"

# ..."La Voz Española" ..."The original document of Rizal’s "retraction" was found in the archdiocesan archives in 1935, 39 years after having disappeared the day Rizal was shot. There was no record of anybody seeing this original document in 1896, except the publishers of La Voz Española, which published its contents on the day of Rizal’s execution: "We have seen and read his (Rizal’s) own handwritten retraction which he sent to our dear and venerable Archbishop…
"Most experts think that the handwriting on the document is authentic. However, scholars are baffled as to why Rizal, who courageously faced persecution for most of his life and who was finally sentenced to death for his beliefs, would suddenly balk at the last, futile moment."

# Rizal and Josephine Bracken applied for a marriage license which was denied by the church authorities. The question is how Rizal actually married Josephine Bracken if he did not retract & be a Catholic again which Josephine claims that Rizal actually married her a day before his execution. The couple were married with Fr. Victor Balaguer, S.J. as the officiating priest. This was at 5:30 a.m. on December 30, 1896, about two hours before he was shot at Bagumbayan.
"Father Balaguer swears that he married José and Josephine about fifteen minutes before the time for the execution. But the marriage record could not be found in the Manila Cathedral nor in the Registry of Fort Santiago where it ought to have been place. This raised doubt. Rizal's sister Lucia, who went with Josephine to the chapel that morning, saw a priest in vestments, but said she did not see the ceremony. One fact supports the marriage statement. Rizal wrote in a copy of The Imitation of Christ, by Thomas a Kempis, these words: "To my dear and unhappy wife, Dec. 30, 1896."

The strongest circumstantial evidence for the wedding comes from Rizal's sister Maria. When she went to say farewell the last night, Jose said to her...
"Maria, I am going to marry Josephine. I know you all oppose it, especially you, yourself. But I want to give Josephine a name. Besides you know the verse in the Bible, 'The sins of the fathers shall be visited upon the children to the third and forth generation.' I do not want them to persecute you or her for what I have done."

# ...11 eyewitnesses when Rizal wrote his retraction, signed a Catholic prayer book and recited Catholic prayers and the multitude who saw him kiss the crucifix before his execution. A great grand nephew of Rizal, Fr. Marciano Guzman, cites that Rizal's 4 confessions were certified by 5 eyewitnesses, 10 qualified witnesses, 7 newspapers and 12 historians and writers including Aglipayan bishops, Masons and anti-clerical. One witness was the head of the Spanish Supreme Court at the time of his notarized declaration and was highly esteemed by Rizal for his integrity.

# ...Rizal's poem is more aptly titled, "Adios, Patria Adorada" (literally "Farewell, Beloved Fatherland"), by virtue of logic and literary tradition, the words coming from the first line of the poem itself. Mariano Ponce in Hong Kong had the poem printed with the title "Mi Ultimo Pensamiento." This poem was unsigned, untitled and undated... why? Was Rizal anticipating total acquittal or pardon?

# ...after the execution of Rizal, Josephine, with Paciano and Trinidad Rizal (her brother and sister-in-law, the latter a Katipunera and a Mason), according to Santiago Alvarez's Memoirs, said that the Rizals came at past one o'clock in the afternoon of December 30, 1896 at San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias). Andres Bonifacio, the Katipunan supremo, received the Rizals himself at the house of Mrs. Estefania Potente where he was staying. Was requested by the Rizals to translate Rizals poem to Tagalog. Bonifacio asked if he could keep for some time a copy of Rizal’s poem so that he could translate it into Tagalog with the assistance of Diego Mojica, President of the Popular Council Mapagtiis and local Cavite poet and writer in Tagalog... again why? After Rizal condemned the Supremo's Katipunan?

# ...why was Rizal's body after the execution, just placed in a sack, buried in Paco Catholic Cemetery. Masons, non Catholics are forbidden to be buried in Catholic Cemeteries. My grandfather Lolo Isabelo Donato a Grand-Master Mason who died much later than Rizal was cremated as other masons before him, for they have no place to be buried.

# ...its important to note that unlike Rizal, the three catholic priests; Gomez, Burgos and Zamora after their execution by garrote, the 13 Martyrs of Bagumbayan, their bodies were placed in a sack and bodies of the three priests were buried in a common, unmarked grave in Paco Cemetery. In 1998, while Manila City engineers were fixing one of the ladies room of Paco Cemetery, bones of the three priests were discovered. Note that GOMBURZA were catholic priests, only accused of a failed rebellion, their bodies where dumped in the cemetery, unmarked. Rizal's body after his execution at least have a tomb with a cross, in Catholic Paco Cemetery, with his initials R.P.J. reversed initials for "Rizal Protacio Jose" because Spanish authorities scared that his body might be exhumed. This is another sign, that he probably retracted.

Analysis on Rizal's retraction:
At least four texts of Rizal's retraction have surfaced. The fourth text appeared in El Imparcial on the day after Rizal’s execution; it is the short formula of the retraction.
The first text was published in La Voz Española and Diaro de Manila on the very day of Rizal’s execution, December 30, 1896. The second text appeared in Barcelona, Spain, on February 14, 1897, in the fortnightly magazine in La Juventud; it came from an anonymous writer who revealed himself fourteen years later as Fr. Balaguer. The "original" text was discovered in the archdiocesan archives on May 18, 1935, after it disappeared for thirty-nine years from the afternoon of the day when Rizal was shot.

We know not that reproductions of the lost original had been made by a copyist who could imitate Rizal’s handwriting. This fact is revealed by Fr. Balaguer himself who, in his letter to his former superior Fr. Pio Pi in 1910, said that he had received "an exact copy of the retraction written and signed by Rizal. The handwriting of this copy I don’t know nor do I remember whose it is... "He proceeded: "I even suspect that it might have been written by Rizal himself. I am sending it to you that you may verify whether it might be of Rizal himself" ...Fr. Pi was not able to verify it in his sworn statement.

This "exact" copy had been received by Fr. Balaguer in the evening immediately preceding Rizal’s execution, Rizal y su Obra, and was followed by Sr. Wenceslao Retana (Spanish civil servant, colonial administrator, writer, publisher and bibliophile) in his biography of Rizal, "Vida y Escritos del Jose Rizal" with the addition of the names of the witnesses taken from the texts of the retraction in the Manila newspapers. Fr. Pi’s copy of Rizal’s retraction has the same text as that of Fr. Balaguer’s "exact" copy but follows the paragraphing of the texts of Rizal’s retraction in the Manila newspapers.

Regarding the "original" text, no one claimed to have seen it, except the publishers of La Voz Espanola. That newspaper reported: "Still more; we have seen and read his (Rizal’s) own hand-written retraction which he sent to our dear and venerable Archbishop…" On the other hand, Manila pharmacist F. Stahl wrote in a letter: "besides, nobody has seen this written declaration, in spite of the fact that quite a number of people would want to see it. "For example, not only Rizal’s family but also the correspondents in Manila of the newspapers in Madrid, Don Manuel Alhama of El Imparcial and Sr. Santiago Mataix of El Heraldo, were not able to see the hand-written retraction.

Neither Fr. Pi nor His Grace the Archbishop ascertained whether Rizal himself was the one who wrote and signed the retraction. (Ascertaining the document was necessary because it was possible for one who could imitate Rizal’s handwriting aforesaid holograph; and keeping a copy of the same for our archives, I myself delivered it personally that the same morning to His Grace Archbishop…

His Grace testified: At once the undersigned entrusted this holograph to Rev. Thomas Gonzales Feijoo, secretary of the Chancery." After that, the documents could not be seen by those who wanted to examine it and was finally considered lost after efforts to look for it proved futile.

On May 18, 1935, the lost "original" document of Rizal’s retraction was discovered by the archdeocean archivist Fr. Manuel Garcia, C.M. The discovery, instead of ending doubts about Rizal’s retraction, has in fact encouraged it because the newly discovered text retraction differs significantly from the text found in the Jesuits’ and the Archbishop’s copies. And, the fact that the texts of the retraction which appeared in the Manila newspapers could be shown to be the exact copies of the "original" but only imitations of it. This means that the friars who controlled the press in Manila (for example, La Voz Española) had the "original" while the Jesuits had only the imitations.

We now proceed to show the significant differences between the "original" and the Manila newspapers texts of the retraction on the one hand and the text s of the copies of Fr. Balaguer and F5r. Pio Pi on the other hand.
# 1st - instead of the words "mi cualidad" (with "u") which appear in the original and the newspaper texts, the Jesuits’ copies have "mi calidad" (with "u").

# 2nd - the Jesuits’ copies of the retraction omit the word "Catolica" after the first "Iglesias" which are found in the original and the newspaper texts.

# 3rd - the Jesuits’ copies of the retraction add before the third "Iglesias" the word "misma" which is not found in the original and the newspaper texts of the retraction.

# 4th - with regards to paragraphing which immediately strikes the eye of the critical reader, Fr. Balaguer’s text does not begin the second paragraph until the fifth sentences while the original and the newspaper copies start the second paragraph immediately with the second sentences.

# 5th - whereas the texts of the retraction in the original and in the manila newspapers have only four commas, the text of Fr. Balaguer’s copy has eleven commas.

# 6th - the most important of all, Fr. Balaguer’s copy did not have the names of the witnesses from the texts of the newspapers in Manila.

In his notarized testimony twenty years later, Fr. Balaguer finally named the witnesses. He said... "This retraction was signed together with Dr. Rizal by Señor Fresno, Chief of the Picket and Señor Moure, Adjutant of the Plaza." However, the proceeding quotation only proves itself to be an addition to the original. Moreover, in his letter to Fr. Pi in 1910, Fr. Balaguer said that he had the "exact" copy of the retraction, which was signed by Rizal, but her made no mention of the witnesses. In his accounts too, no witnesses signed the retraction.

How did Fr. Balaguer obtain his copy of Rizal’s retraction? Fr. Balaguer never alluded to having himself made a copy of the retraction although he claimed that the Archbishop prepared a long formula of the retraction and Fr. Pi a short formula. In Fr. Balaguer’s earliest account, it is not yet clear whether Fr. Balaguer was using the long formula of nor no formula in dictating to Rizal what to write. According to Fr. Pi, in his own account of Rizal’s conversion in 1909, Fr. Balaguer dictated from Fr. Pi’s short formula previously approved by the Archbishop. In his letter to Fr. Pi in 1910, Fr. Balaguer admitted that he dictated to Rizal the short formula prepared by Fr. Pi; however; he contradicts himself when he revealed that the "exact" copy came from the Archbishop. The only copy, which Fr. Balaguer wrote, is the one that appeared ion his earliest account of Rizal’s retraction.

Where did Fr. Balaguer’s "exact" copy come from? We do not need long arguments to answer this question, because Fr. Balaguer himself has unwittingly answered this question. He said in his letter to Fr. Pi in 1910:

"…I preserved in my keeping and am sending to you the original texts of the two formulas of retraction, which they (You) gave me; that from you and that of the Archbishop, and the first with the changes which they (that is, you) made; and the other the exact copy of the retraction written and signed by Rizal. The handwriting of this copy I don’t know nor do I remember whose it is, and I even suspect that it might have been written by Rizal himself."

In his own word quoted above, Fr. Balaguer said that he received two original texts of the retraction. The first, which came from Fr. Pi, contained "the changes which You (Fr. Pi) made"; the other, which is "that of the Archbishop" was "the exact copy of the retraction written and signed by Rizal" (underscoring supplied). Fr. Balaguer said that the "exact copy" was "written and signed by Rizal" but he did not say "written and signed by Rizal and himself" (the absence of the reflexive pronoun "himself" could mean that another person-the copyist-did not). He only "suspected" that "Rizal himself" much as Fr. Balaguer did "not know nor remember" whose handwriting it was.

Thus, according to Fr. Balaguer, the "exact copy" came from the Archbishop! He called it "exact" because, not having seen the original himself, he was made to believe that it was the one that faithfully reproduced the original in comparison to that of Fr. Pi in which "changes" (that is, where deviated from the "exact" copy) had been made. Actually, the difference between that of the Archbishop (the "exact" copy) and that of Fr. Pi (with "changes") is that the latter was "shorter" be cause it omitted certain phrases found in the former so that, as Fr. Pi had fervently hoped, Rizal would sign it.

According to Fr. Pi, Rizal rejected the long formula so that Fr. Balaguer had to dictate from the short formula of Fr. Pi. Allegedly, Rizal wrote down what was dictated to him but he insisted on adding the phrases "in which I was born and educated" and "Masonary" as the enemy that is of the Church" – the first of which Rizal would have regarded as unnecessary and the second as downright contrary to his spirit. However, what actually would have happened, if we are to believe the fictitious account, was that Rizal’s addition of the phrases was the restoration of the phrases found in the original which had been omitted in Fr. Pi’s short formula.

The "exact" copy was shown to the military men guarding in Fort Santiago to convince them that Rizal had retracted. Someone read it aloud in the hearing of Capt. Dominguez, who claimed in his "Notes that Rizal read aloud his retraction. However, his copy of the retraction proved him wrong because its text (with "u") and omits the word "Catolica" as in Fr. Balaguer’s copy but which are not the case in the original. Capt. Dominguez never claimed to have seen the retraction: he only "heard."
It is very important to note that the truth is that, almost two years before his execution, Rizal had written a retraction in Dapitan. Very early in 1895, Josephine Bracken came to Dapitan with her adopted father who wanted to be cured of his blindness by Dr. Rizal; their guide was Manuela Orlac, who was agent and a mistress of a friar. Rizal fell in love with Josephine and wanted to marry her canonically but he was required to sign a profession of faith and to write retraction, which had to be approved by the Bishop of Cebu. "Spanish law had established civil marriage in the Philippines," Prof. Craig wrote, but the local government had not provided any way for people to avail themselves of the right..."

In order to marry Josephine, Rizal wrote with the help of a priest a form of retraction to be approved by the Bishop of Cebu. This incident was revealed by Fr. Antonio Obach to his friend Prof. Austin Craig who wrote down in 1912 what the priest had told him; "The document (the retraction), inclosed with the priest’s letter, was ready for the mail when Rizal came hurrying I to reclaim it." Rizal realized (perhaps, rather late) that he had written and given to a priest what the friars had been trying by all means to get from him.

Neither the Archbishop nor Fr. Pi saw the original document of retraction. What they was saw a copy done by one who could imitate Rizal’s handwriting while the original (almost eaten by termites) was kept by some friars. Both the Archbishop and Fr. Pi acted innocently because they did not distinguish between the genuine and the imitation of Rizal's handwriting.
- ka tony
the 17th of February '14
- many thanks to Ka Jim Richardson for the image of Rizal's retraction document.

Monday, October 5, 2015

Secretaria de Guerra - Heneral Antonio Luna

Dahil sa pagani ng tagumpay sa takilya ng mga sinehan ang pelikulang "Heneral Luna," maraming lumabas na mga artikulo sa facebook ayon sa kaniya, kay Mabini at tungkol sa pelikula. Marami rin nag-pm sa akin na mga kasama kung ano ang aking palagay sa pelikulang ito. Ako'y nakapagbigay ng aking pagpuna bilang mananaliksik ng ating kasaysayan at bilang may karanasan sa paggawa sa produksyon pang pelikula sa mga artikulong ipinamahagi, marahil dahil sa tagumpay na tinatamo ng sining na ito'y nakapagbukas ng isipan at lalong dumami ang katanungan sa ating mananaliksik ng kasaysayan kaya't marami sa akin ang nag-pm, nagtatanong ng aking palagay at masasabi. Nakapagbigay ako ng aking personal na pagpuna sa isa sa mga artikulo ipinamahagi na sa aking palagay ang karamihang pinanggalingan ng pananaliksik ayon sa buhay ni Luna ay mula sa panulat ni Nick Juaquin (Quijano de Manila), na hindi ko na malaan kung saan sinulid o kaninong artikulo ko ito sinulat at ito nga ay inamin sa ginawang pakikipanayam sa mga lumikha ng pelikula sa isang programa ng CNN.

Ang aking mga pagpunang gagawin ay magkahalo bilang mananaliksik ng kasaysayan at ang aking karanasan sa paggawa sa produksyon pang pelikula.

- Kung bakit naging matagumpay ang "Heneral Luna" kaysa sa ibang epikong pang kasaysayan pelikula:

# ...ang screenplay ay pinakitang "tao" at hindi pinagpilitang bayani si Luna, subalit matapang, matalino, praktikal, kaya walang respeto sa nakatataas sa kaniya at laong walang respeto sa mga may "puting balat" (kadalasan kasi'y ang Pinoy ay mataas ang paggalang at pagtingin sa may "balat na puti") at ang mahalaga sa ating mga Pinoy, si Luna ay pinakitang may "sense of humor." Ito'y ating katangian mutuwal kaya't ang lahat ng ito'y hinahanap natin sa pangunahing karakter, sa larangan ng pelikula ito'y "subliminal co-relationship."
# ...gumamit ng mga Kastilang pagmumura tulad ng "Puñeta!" upang mamukod sa paggamit ng pananalitang makabagong kolokyal upang muling magkaroon ng mutuwal na pagkakaugnayan ng nanonood at ang mga karakter sa pelikula.
# ...madetalya ang pananaliksik sa kasuotang uniporme o costume design, shooting locations, art direction, props, make-up at visual effects.
# ...hindi nagbintang ang screenplay sa mga karakter lalo na kay Aguinaldo na siyang maysala sa pagkakapaslang kay Luna. Hindi pinangalan ang kasintahan ni Luna na "Ysidra" kung 'di ay "Isabel."
# ...ipinadama ng pelikula na ang kasalukuyang pangulo at pamahalaan natin na "walang cojones" ay tulad din ng walang cojones na si Aguinaldo sampu ng kaniyang kabinete. Ito muli ay isang "subliminal co-relationship."

- Bakit may mga flaw o kinakailangang maglikha ng creative lisence sa ibang eksena at kasaysayan:

# ...kung ang tinutukoy ng pelikula na si "Isabel" ay si Ysidra, bakit ipinakitang mayaman si "Isabel" si Ysidra Cojuangco ay anak ng isang karpinterong insik, ganoon din ang isang tinutukoy nilang Pampangena na si Nicolasa Dayrit ay isang dukha rin.
# ...bakit hindi ipinakita ang mga tunay na mga Kastilang opisyales na alalay ni Luna na sila Torres Bugallon at Manuel Bernal Sityar.
# ...bakit sa halip na ipinakita sa pelikula na may 4,000 mga tao na sumapi sa batalyon ni Luna, hindi ipinakita na ang katotohanan na ang mga dating opisyales at "elite creole officers" na mga Kastila tulad nila; Torres Bugallon, Mayor, Sityar, Queri, Ortiz, Blardoni, Cavestany, Yago, Elvena, Obin at Bedel, na mga pangunahing opisyales at pawang mga war strategiests ang mga ito. Ganoong din ang mga dating mga guardia civil, casadores at veteranas na naglingkod sa Kastilang cortes ay kinuha ni Luna bilang suwelduhan sundalo niya, na hindi tulad ng mga tauhan ni Aguinaldo'y kusang loob o pawang mga bolontaryong nakibaka sa himagsikan.
# ...kaya't kung swelduhan ang mga opesyales ni Luna, ang batalyong sundalo sa ilalim niya, sila lamang ang may mga pangunahing panlunas na ambulansya, mga mangagamot at nurses, akademya sa pananandata, saan at sino ang nagpopondo ng lahat nang ito kay Luna.
# ...bakit hindi ipinakita ang mahalagang labanan na nangyari sa La Loma na kung saan tinamaan ng punlo ang kanang kamay na opisyal ni Luna na si Jose Torres Bugallon, tuloy si Luna ay nagbalik sa La Loma upang hanapin si Bugallon at nagsabi... "mas mahalaga ang iisang Bugallon kaysa sa ilang daan na sundalo" na namatay sa kaniyang kandungan at ang machong si Luna ay humagulgol ng iyak.
# sibakin ni Pedrong Kastila ang mukha ni Luna, ito'y naganap sa may hagdanan at hindi sa korte na ang pagkakaasasinang nangyari. Lumabas si Luna sa korte na hinintulad sa pelikulang "Viva Zapata" ang ginanap na pagasasina. Nang hukayin muli ang labi ni Luna upang bigyan ng pagsusuri ni Antonio Jimenez noong taon 1902, ay nagsabi sa kaniyang ginawang otopsiya...
"I saw in the cranium two marks of two wounds inflicted with a bolo, one towards the posterior part two inches long, and the other towards the front which destroyed the cavity wherein was found the left eye. There were also two wounds more in the bones of the right arm that were well marked. I have also seen several holes in the cranium that possibly were the effects of bullets from a gun."

Sa ano man himagsikan ay magsasanga ang idelohyia. Tulad na rin sa nangyari sa himagsikan ng Rusya at Tsina, subalit ang pinakamapanganib na sektor ng himagsikan ay ang mga reaksyonaryo. Sapagkat magtagumpay man ang himagsikan, ang mga reaksyonaryo ay hindi titigil at magpapatuloy na salungantin ang prinsipyo, idelohyia at tuwid na landas na patutunguhan ng pagbabago. Ang sinimulang sosyalistang pangmasang himagsikang Katipunan ng Supremo Bonifacio ay inagaw ng mga dropang Ilustrado ni Aquinaldo at sa bandang huli ay kinampihan naman ito ng reaksyonaryong tropa ni Antonio Luna, upang gamitin ang hukbo at maibalik sa mga Kastila ang kolonyang inaagaw ng mga gringo. Kung ating iisipin saan nangaling ang milyong-milyong salapi, pondo ng himagsikan na dala-dala ni Antonio Luna sa Tarlac? Bakit si Luna ang may hawak nito at hindi si Aquinaldo? Iniwan ni Luna ang milyong-milyong salapi, pondo ng himagsikan na ito sa kaniyang kasintahan na taga Tarlac na noon'y nagdadalang-tao sa kaniyang anak. Iniwan at pinagkatiwala ang salaping pondo na ito upang siya ay makipagpulong kay Aquinaldo sa Cabanatuan, na kung saan si Luna ay pinaslang ng mga tauhan ni Aquinaldo. Kung ang milyong-milyong salapi, pondo ng himagsikan na dala-dala ni Antonio Luna ay pagaari ng himagsikan ng Ilustrado, dapat alam ni Aquinaldo at ng patayin si Luna ito'y dapat nilang hinanap at kunin sa kasintahan ng inasasinang Antonio Luna.

Ang mahiwaga na mga katanungan sa ating kasaysayan ay dinala ni Luna sa kaniyang libingan. Ang Ambasadora na si Rafaelita Hilario Soriano ay nagsabi ayon sa pondo sa kamay ni Luna...
"General Antonio Luna, as chief of staff of the revolutionary army, had collected a sizeable sum from contributions with which to pay his soldiers. The person who collected for him was Tiburcio Hilario, Pampanga governor, my grandfather kept the gold and silver in sacks, including gold plates, chalices, and other church treasures from Bacolor, San Fernando, and Guagua."
- ka tony
ika-5 ng Oktubre, '15

Monday, August 24, 2015

Birhen Balintawak

...ang ika-23, buwan ng Agosto ay bispiras na paghahanda para sa kapistahan ng patron-santo ng mga patalim, San Bartolome na kinagawiang kaganapan sa Malabon, ito'y nakatala sa ginawang pagpaplanong militar ng Supremo Bonifacio upang magkaroon ng dahilan ang mga Katipunero na makapagdala ng kanilang mga bolo, tabak, punyal at balisong na hindi sisitahin at uusisain ng mga guardia civil sa inaakalang kinaugalian na pagbasbas nito sa simbahan ni San Bartolome. Tuloy ang mga Katipunero ay nakasuot ng kinagawiang "balintawak" na pulang pantalon, puting pangitaas, pulang panyolito na nasa leeg at may dalang bolo, bilang parangal din sa kulay na sagisag ng patron santo. Nagdaan din ang Supremo at mga Katipunero sa kinagawiang paglalakad sa tila baling landas ng Balintawak na daanan ang mga bumibisita at nagnonobena patungo sa parokya ni San Bartolome. Subalit ang mga ito'y hindi nagtuloy sa Malabon, ang Supremo kasama ang mga Katipunero ay nagtungo sa Pugad Lawin at dito isinagawa ang malaking pagpupulong. Ang Pugad Lawin tulad ng Pasong Tamo at Kangkong ay tinatawag ngayon na "Greater Balintawak Area" na kasama sa ngayong "Greater Caloocan." Ang "Caloocan" ay galing sa salitang "ka-loukan" o "kalook-luokan" na ibig sabihin ay kaloob-luoban na halos kagubatan na tagong luga, malayo sa mga arrabales na nasa labas ng Intramuros (Maynila).

Nang makituloy ang Supremo Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto at mga Katipunero sa bahay ni Melchora "Tandang Sora" Aquino sa Banlat, sila'y nagpalipas ng gabi ang mga ito naman ay walang damot na pinakain at inaruga ng bayaning matanda. Sinasabing habang natutulog ang Supremo Bonifacio at Emilio Jacinto sa bahay ni Tandang Sora, isa sa kanila ang nanaginip ng isang napakagandang babaing kasama ang kaniyang anak na lalaki at kapwa na kasuot ng "balintawak." Ang batang lalaki ay may hawak na makintab na itak at sumisigaw ng... "Kalayaan! Kalayaan!" Ang ina naman ng bata ay nagsabi na... "Ako'y nagpapaalala sa inyo na ipagpatuloy ang iyong banal subalit hindi maiwasan na tungkulin, gawin lahat ang magagawa at pagsisikap upang maisagawa at matamo ang ating inaasam na kalayaan." Pinagbawalan din ng Birhen na huwag magbalik sa kamaynilaan ang Supremo Bonifacio at Gat Jacinto, sapakat ang lihim na samahang Masang Katipunan ay pinagkanulo sa kumpisalan ni Padre Mariano Gil ng kapatid na madre ni Teodoro Patiño na taga paglimbag ng "Kalayaan," pahayagan ng Katipunan at ito naman ay sinumbong ni Padre Gil sa mga Kastila.

Ang mag-ina sa panaginip ay tinawag na "Birhen Balintawak" na binibigyan ng pagdakila sa nobenaryo na pagdakila at pagsamba sa pamamagitan ng nobena sa ika-26 ng Agosto na sinasabing isa sa mga araw na pinapaniwalaang "Unang Sigaw" o "Grito de Balintawak" na opisyal na sinimulan ng Masang Katipunan ang himagsikan laban sa kolonyalismo, ayon sa "Iglesia Filipina Independiente" (Philippine Independent Church) o "Aglipayan Church." Ang simbahan na tinaguyod ni Isabelo de los Reyes at minungkahi niyang kilalanin na Supremo-Obispo nito'y si Gregorio Aglipay.

Ayon kay Supremo-Obispo Gregorio Aglipay... "ang Birhen Balintawak ay sagisag ng ating Bayan at ang sanggol na Katipunan na kanyang dala, ay ang Bayang Filipino, ang sumisibol na salinlahi, ang kabataang naghahangad ng pagsasarili, at ang dalawang larawang ito ang twina’y magpapagunita sa inyo sa ating tungkuling 'di maiiwasan at napakabanal na gawin ang lahat ng pagsasakit upang makamtan ito. Dahil dito sa simbahang ito ay mabubuhay at tuwina’y mag-uumugong na muli ang mga aral na walang kamatayan ni Rizal at iba pang mga bayaning Filipino ukol sa ating mga tungkulin sa Dios at sa ating bayan. Kaya’t mga kapatid, parito kayo’y tumulong sa dakilang gawaing ito sa pagtubos sa ating bayan at sa pagtubos ng ating budhi, sa halip na makadami sa hukbo ng mga kaaway ng bayan at ng ating pagsasarili at makaragdag pa sa kanilang puno ng kaban ng yaman."

Ang ang una sa labing-walong basahin ng nobenaryo para sa Birhen Balintawak ay mga araling simbahan, makaagham at alamat, batay sa pananampalataya ng "Iglesia Filipina Independiente" alinsunod sa kanilang paniniwala at ang huling siyam na basahin ay nagaalay sa pagkilala at gawaing makabayan. Kasama sa babasahin ang pinagsama-samang sinulat ng ating mga bayani, tulad ng: Kartilya ng Katipunan ni Gat Emilio Jacinto, Dekalogo ni Apolinario Mabini at mga kasulatang hinango mula kay Rizal. Ang pagsasama-sama ng mga epikong sinulat ng mga bayani ay pinaliliwanag sa ika-siyam na basahin sa ikapitong araw ng nobena para sa Birhen Balintawak.
- ka tony

ika-24 ng Agosto '15

Monday, April 27, 2015

The myth by Dr. Luis Dery: "The Trial and Death of Andres Bonifacio: A Myth"

According to Dr. Luis Derry, the place of Bonifacio’s death was in Limbon (Indang) on April 23, 1897 and he was buried on April 26, 1897, in this case he is also denying the trial of Supremo Bonifacio. Scholars could not agree on the exact place where Bonifacio was murdered; for Teodoro Agoncillo it was in Mt. Tala, for Santiago Alvarez it was Mt. Buntis and for some it was Maragondon. This article is looking for answers why Dery over looked the following facts if he was acknowledged by his colleagues for having spent countless hours going through books, manuscripts, periodicals and microfilm in search of material that has since been shared in academic conferences and in his many books to come out with his thesis "The Trial and Death of Andres Bonifacio: A Myth"

# ...If the Supremo was killed in Limbon according to Dery, why did Aquinaldo government decided to bury his body in Maragondon, a distance of 39 Km about 46 minutes by a car now a days? The fact is, the trial of Supreno Bonifacio, begins in Naic and ends in Maragondon, for Naic fell to the Spanish forces during the trial and Aquinaldo had to move his government to Maragondon. On May 6, the court-martial found the Supremo and Procopio Bonifacio guilty of trying to overthrow the government and asked for the death penalty.

# ...If the Supremo was killed in Limbon on April 23, 1897 according to Dery, how can Supremo be able to write separate letters dated Abril 24,1897 to Emilio Jacinto and to Julio Nakpil, then on April 27 to Gen. Mariano Alvarez (Gen. Mainam), the letter stated...
27 April 1897
My dear General Mainam:
Our recently concluded election at Mapagtiis [San Francisco de Malabon] has left a large poisonous thorn in my heart. I reiterate to you my nullification of all that had been agreed upon there. Ay, General, I never expected that my complacency and loyalty would be rewarded with avarice and insult upon my person by your fellow townsmen who are spurious patriots. I shall make them realize when I set foot on Morong [Rizal province] soil that it was not I whom they insulted but the whole country.

Send me food at once and faithful followers of the Mother Country here at Limbon as a fulfillment of your promised help when I left in disquietude.
Your supremo,
And. Bonifacio, Maypagasa.

# ...In the evening of April 29, 1897, some Magdiwang leaders met at the invitation Of Secretary of War Ariston Vilanueva and Secretary of Finance Diego Mojica in a house in Naic, the purpose of which is to discuss a plan to rescue the Supremo and his brother who were held prisoner of the Magdalo. They did not invite Gen. Mariano Alvarez (Gen. Mainam) and his son Gen. Santiago Alvarez (Gen. Apoy) because the former was with the Magdalo-sponsored "Philippine Republic," as director of welfare while the latter was patently opposed to any move that would lead to a civil war. Those present approved of a plan to organize a bolo regiment that was to pretend to reinforce the infantry contingent guarding the Naic estate house and at a given signal, it was to make a sudden, simultaneous attack and then, capture the guns and the fortifications. However, the plans never materialized because of unexpected attack by the Spaniards, which led to the capture of Naic and Indang.
- - The next day Gen. Luciano San Miguel reported to Gen. Apoy (
Santiago Alvarez) what transpired at the meeting but the latter advised against such a plan because he thought it would lead the country to perdition and said...

"- - Ano ang sasapitin ng kaunting magkakasama na maghihiwa-hiwalay at magsusukat ng kani-kanyang lakas? Kung magkakagayo'y sa ibabaw ng atin ding kapalaluan magdaraan ang makapal na Kaaway, sapagka't walang pagtatanggol na magagawa laban sa kanila, dahil sa masamang pag-iimbot, na lupigin ang kapatid na kapatid din niya, gayong ang ating dugo at buhay ay walang sadyang pinaglalaanan kundi ang Kalayaan ng Inang-Bayan."

# ...The trial of the prisoners, Supremo Andres Bonifacio and his companions, was held on 29 and 30 April 1897, in Naic, Cavite, before a court martial headed by Col. Pantaleon Garcia.
The following is a deposition of Gen. Mariano Noriel which was presented before the court:
Col. Agapito Bonzon reported that when he arrested the Supremo and his companions in the village of Limbon, with his persuasive best to convince him to comply with summons from the Government of the Philippine Republic, the Supremo not only refused him but is belligerent and ordered his troops to shoot. Col. Bonzon had to shoot back in self-defense, thus, the unexpected shedding of blood and taking of lives. Two soldiers of the Philippine Republic and a brother of the Supremo, Ciriaco was killed. The above is the report of Colonel Bonzon which I am submitting to you.
(Sgd.) Mariano Noriel
Brigadier General
To the Honorable President of the "Philippine Republic" Mr. Emilio Aguinaldo:
This letter should be acknowledged by the War Council which should appoint a colonel as judge to try the case.

# ...The President's memo was sent to Col. Pantaleon Garcia who upon receiving his appointment as judge advocate in the trial, immediately set up a court in Naic with Capt. Lazaro Macapagal as secretary. The trial started on April 29, 1897 before the officers of the court martial, Garcia and Macapagal. The accused answered the questions truthfully and in a straightforward manner. The following are the samples of their testimonies on the first day of trial.

- - Testimony of Benito Torres...
He was one of the head soldiers of the Supremo, with Pedro Giron as colonel, Roxas as captain and Juan Liwanag as lieutenant. He did not know where their guns came from, but even when they are in Balara, he knew that the supremo already had many guns. He was not aware of a government with a higher power than the Highest Council of the Katipunan of the Sons of the people. They were getting to leave Cavite and were only waiting for the Supremo's order and he had no knowledge of the trouble in Indang; all he knew was that the troops sent by the Supremo were not only refused aid but also scolded.

- - Testimony of Procopio Bonifacio...
He was not aware of the new government, he did not know how many guns they had but all of them were already in their possession when they were in Balara. He did not know if the Government of the Philippine Republic had guns mixed with the ones from Balara. In the event that this had happened, Pedro Giron should know, for he was the only one authorized by the army to come in and go out of camp freely.
They had prepared to retreat to the hills of Rizal where they had planned to regroup and establish a new front in order to disperse the enemy. They had envisioned this to be of benefit to Cavite because the concentration of the enemy forces in the area would be broken. But since they were not ready to leave yet, they had encamped at Limbon to defend it and keep the enemy from entering Indang. They did not know of the existence of a government with power over them and he had not written to any head soldier in the Magdalo camp to join their group. His brothers, Andres and Ciriaco could attest to this.
No meeting whatsoever was held at Limbon. Aside from his natural disposition and force of habit, it was also his duty as Supremo to cultivate fraternal love and sympathy even with those considered to be dangerous to society. He could make them embrace brotherly love for the sake of freedom for the native land. And now it was he who was considered dangerous! There was never any meeting or private conversation in Limbon that was against the government they said had been established or against President Aguinaldo. And there was no plan whatsoever to overthrow the government of whose existence we were not even aware of.

- - Testimony of the Supremo Andres Bonifacio...
His position was that of Supremo of the Katipunan and president of the Revolution. He did not know of other government that should be respected and established by the revolutionary nation. He knew that there was an army in Cavite led by Gens. Santiago Alvarez, Emilio Aguinaldo, Artemio Ricarte and Pio Del Pilar. As organizer of the Katipunan, authority emanated from him and he did not ask permission from anyone.
He had fifty guns brought to Cavite to help defend the province. However, only 17 Remingtons were left after Magdalo troops borrowed it. He was not sure if there are guns marked Magdalo, but that should not be the case since none of the guns borrowed were ever returned.
He knew Messrs. Torres, Giron, Ritual and Pio Del Pilar but never written to any of the above gentlemen for the purpose of enticing them and their troops to defect to his army.
He did not call a meeting at Limbon and talked only with his own men. he never met Giron who claimed to have been ordered by him to kill the president of the new government. Giron's claim was a lie and was motivated by avarice. Messrs. Silvestre and Diego Mojica had passed by at Limbon on their way to Buena Vista but very briefly that they barely had time to exchange greetings.
He had given no orders to his brothers and his men to the troops who attacked them. When they saw these troops, they had already surrounded the residence as was witnessed by everybody including the villagers.
One colonel had asked permission to talk to him, that they had to do something about the news in Indang that the Balara detachment was planning to ambush his troops at Paso but after seeing for themselves that the news was false, he had to apologize. He even shared a meal with the colonel and when they left, he (the Supremo) had presented them with several packs of cigarettes and matches.
After a while, one of his soldiers reported that their outside battery had been captured by those to whom they had just given presents and that these men had given stern orders not to let anyone go out or come into the fort. They also seized the guns of troops guarding the fort, raided all houses and ordered the detainment of his troops.
In order to find out if it's true, he had sent some men outside to investigate. When these did not return, he had asked Captain Martin and Gen. Santos Nocon and later Dorong Puti, to do the same but these emissaries could report nothing except that the assaulting party refused to make explanations.
If his election as president was acknowledged and respected, still these questions had to be answered: Why was he 'not so proclaimed'? And why were 'Policies and Guidelines' not disseminated? Instead, hasty decrees were imposed on people who were not aware of them. People had been grilled on whether or not they accepted the existence of the "Philippine Republic" or if they have a permission to stay or assemble in a given place. These interrogations are untenable since there were no decrees or orders to that effect. Moreover, these were the revolutionary times and it was the duty of all to defend the freedom of the Motherland.

Why did Mr. Emilio Aguinaldo 'insist on his claim' to the presidency despite the decision of the presiding officer of the meeting at Tejeros and the speeches and manifestos circulated by the leaders during the election? Why did he take his oath of office in secret with a priest, Fr. Cenon Villafranca when he knew that the latter was under the jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff? No one in history had read or heard of a national president taking his oath of office in secret before the representative of the pope in Rome. This was unthinkable, considering that the Philippine revolution was the result of outbursts of nationalist feelings of Dr. Rizal, Burgos, Zamora, and other defenders of freedom.
For reasons already stated, he was not aware that Mr. Aguinaldo was president of the "Philippine Republic." Made in the name of God and the Motherland, the valuable statements above composed of the deposition of the Supremo Andres Bonifacio.

- - Testimony of Mrs. Gregoria de Jesus (Wife of Supremo Bonifacio)...
She did not know who fired the first shots because she had run to the woods as soon as she saw the great number of men attacking the place where they were staying.
She had seen the five men captured and punished by Ciriaco Bonifacio. They admitted they were spies for the Spaniards, assigned to report on the position and number of guards in the revolutionary forces. After they had confessed, they had begged for mercy and were spared but Ciriaco had their heads, eyebrows, and eyelashes shaved to keep them from escaping. To avoid condemnation from others, word had been spread around that the prisoners were being punished for theft.
Not a single meeting had been held at their residence in Limbon; she did not know that the Philippine Island had a president and she did not know of any instructions the Supremo had issued to the effect that his men were to halt all troops passing by the Limbon fort. (The supposed order to halt was to be given three times; if after the third time any passing troops did not take heed, then they were to be fired at with a machine gun.)

# ...Aguinaldo commuted the sentence to deportation on May 8, 1897, but Pio del Pilar and Mariano Noriel, both former supporters of Bonifacio upon learning of this, persuaded him to withdraw the order for the sake of preserving unity and were supported by other leaders. The Bonifacio brothers were executed on May 10, 1897 in the mountains of Maragondon. Aguinaldo pardoned Generals Noriel and Del Pilar was ordered to return to their posts, even testified against the Bonifacio brothers.

# ...A fascinating exception are the unpublished memoirs of Revolutionary Veteran Castor de Jesus, first cousin of Bonifacio’s wife Gregoria. Veterano de Jesus was among the first recruits of the Katipunan, followed the Supremo to Cavite, was in Maragondon during the trial and execution of the Bonifacio brothers and his memoirs, in Tagalog, pack detail so densely that scene after scene is recreated for the reader. 

According to the memoirs, the Supremo left for Cavite early in December, at five in the afternoon, carrying with him for expenses only 27 pesos. Accompanying him were his wife, who was pregnant, his secretary Emilio Jacinto and a few others, all of them on horseback. Left in command of the Katipunan headquarters at the Real de Balara was Julio Nakpil, segundo supremo. Before he rode away, Bonifacio spoke to his men: "Brothers, I must leave you because duty calls, but I feel sad to be separated from you, since we have been together in suffering from the start. If I leave you well, I hope to find you well on my return, like harmonious brothers with one mother. I shall not stay there long: I merely wish to gratify our brothers who are inviting me."

De Jesus notes that the sky darkened as the Supremo rode away, and that the men left behind felt melancholy: "We worried, as though conscious of some mishap threatening to befall them on their trip."

When De Jesus next visited Cavite, the Supremo was already inflight. De Jesus joined the flight and was captured along with the Bonifacios.

His memoirs give an intimate account of the last day in Maragondon. On May 9, Bonifacio’s wife suddenly realized that it was her birthday and began to weep as she recalled how her parents never let the day pass without a celebration. Bonifacio, who was feverish from his wounds (he had been wounded during his capture), tried to console his wife: "Alas, you tied yourself to a troubled life!" She hastened to assure him that she was not lamenting her lot: "It had always been my dream to find as my companion in life a man with a golden love for freedom and for our country. It seems that the fortune you dream of is the fortune you get. And if now these moments of misfortune come to us, what shall we do? They come to us from the Lord."
According to the memoirs, Colonel Lazaro Makapagal, accompanied by Jose Zulueta, came that night to the house where Bonifacio was kept, and announced that he had orders to fetch the prisoner. The prisoner had to face a brief hearing but would be returned at once. His wife protested that he had been in pain all night and she begged for bandages with which to dress his wounds, which had begun to fester. The colonel explained that his soldiers had brought a hammock in which to carry the prisoner. Because Bonifacio was taken away in the night, a belief arose that he had been executed at midnight.
- - the memoirs of the Katipunero Castor de Jesus written in Tagalog was donated by his family to the National Heroes Commission, under the safekeeping of the Philippine National Library.
- ka tony
the 10th of May, 2014

references: Pilipino Heritage # La Independencia (newspaper) # The Tribune (newspaper) # Memoirs of Gen. Artemio Ricarte # Katipunan and the Revolution (S.Alvarez) # A Question of Heroes (N.Joaquin) # Bonifacio Papers (J.Richardson)

Saturday, February 28, 2015

Manipesto ng Creoles/Filipinos, Mestizos at Ilustrados, ika-1 ng Marso, 1888

...umaga, ika-1 ng Marso, 1888 mga creoles/Filipino, mestizos at ilang ilustrados ay nagmartsa patungo sa tinitirhan ng pansamantalang gobernador, Jose Centeno Garcia na isang mason, upang ibigay ang isang petisyong pagtangal sa Dominikanong Arsobispo Pedro Payo at pagtatangal din sa mga prayle at sa kanilang kapangyarihan sa ano man sanga ng Katolikong simbahan. Ang pagmartsa ay pinangunahan nila Doroteo Cortez na isang abogadong mestizo at Jose Ramos na hawak ang manipestong nagtataglay ng mga krimen, kasalanan at pangaabusong ginagawa ng mga prayle sa kolonyang "Filipinas," habang sila ay sumisigaw ng... "Viva España! Viva el Rey! Viva el Ejercito! Fuera los Frailes!" ("Mabuhay ang Espana! Mabuhay ang Hari! Mabuhay ang Hukbo! Ipatapon ang mga Prayle!").

Ang nasabing manipesto ay nilagdaan ng 810 na katao at ang kopya nito'y ipinadala sa Reyna Regente ng Espana. Hinihiling din sa manipesto ang pagtataguyod ng Sekular na mga paring Filipino at pagiging "Cura Parroco" ng mga ito sa iba't ibang parokya ng simbahan sa kapuloan. Binangit din na ang kahilingang Sekularisasyon ay matagal ng repormang kahilingan ni Padre Jose Burgos na naging sanhi ito ng kaniyang kamatayan sa garrote. Ang nakalagdang autor ng manipesto ay ang abogadong mestizo Doroteo Cortez, subalit ang tunay na nagsulat nito'y ang henyong Marcelo H.del Pilar.

Makaraan ang isang lingong pagsisiyasat sa naganap, napagalaman ng Kastilang Cortes na ang mga taong nakalagda sa dokumentong ito'y hindi alam ang mga kahilingang nasa manipestong kanilang pinirmahan at pinabulaan na hindi sila sangayon sa pagpapatangal sa Arsobispo Pedro Payo at pagpapatagal din sa mga prayle. Ang mga lider at mga namuno sa pagmartsang naganap ay biglang naglaho na parang bula at iba nama'y ipinatapon sa malayong lugar na tulad din sa pagkakatapon sa kapatid ni Marcelo del Pilar, Padre Toribio Hilario del Pilar sa Isla ng Marianas sa pagkakasangkot niya sa "Cavite Mutiny" na ibinintang din sa mga GOMBURZA. Ang pansamantalang gobernador na Jose Centeno Garcia ay nagbitaw ng kaniyang tungkulin at umuwi ng Espana, samantalang ang amo niyang Gobernador-Heneral Emilio Terrero ay natapos ang termino at tungkulin sa kolonyang Filipinas at pinalitan siya ng bagong Gobernador-Heneral Antonio Molto.

Ilang buwan pa lamang ang nakakalipas sa pagmartsang ginawa at sa subersibong manipestong sinulat, ay kumalat naman ang aklat ni Jose Rizal, "Noli me Tangere" sa kapuloan. Upang huwag maakit ang mga nakabasa at magbabasa ng subersibong aklat na Noli, ang Agostinong padre Jose Rodriguez ay nagsulat ng isang dokumentong... "¡Caiñgat Cayo!: Sa mañga masasamang libro't, casulatan" na nagsasaad na ang pagbabasa ng aklat ni Rizal ay isang mortal na kasalanan sa Diyos at simbahan. Bilang sagot naman sa dokumentong ginawa ni padre Rodriguez, si Del Pilar ay sumulat ng... "Caiigat Cayo" (Kadulas Kayo ng Igat") na kinagalit lalo ng mga pare at prayle kay Del Pilar. Kaya naman ang Kastilang Cortes ay inakusahan ng mapangganib na subersibo at paghuli kay Del Pilar, tuloy noong ika-28 ng Oktubre, 1888, si Marcelo H.del Pilar ay iniwan ang kaniyang mga mahal sa buhay at tumakas patungong Espana.
- ka tony
ika-1 ng Marso, '15